Unformatted text preview: 3 Ts and Dimensions of Service Quality Quality
Direct Effects Dimensions of Service Quality Task Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Treatment Empathy Tangibles Tangibles Outline Outline The 3Ts of the service encounter Task Treatment Tangibles Interrelationships of 3Ts The Tangibles The Physical Realm Things or Artifacts Objective evaluation criteria Non-temporal – enduring Long planning window, managed in low contact areas Skills of facility management and industrial design Focusing on tangibles at SWA: “…new aircraft, attractive hostesses…and new inexpensive exotically named drinks” inexpensive Bold painted aircraft and casual uniforms Limited foodservice Tangibles Tangibles Spatial layout: Spatial Functionality, Efficiency, Functionality, Ease, Cost Lighting, Mood, Lighting, Scent Scent Ambient Conditions: Ambient Signs, Symbols, Artifacts: Signs, Airport signage Tangibles Tangibles Mix and match spatial layout, ambient conditions and signs/symbols/artifacts Hospital – Patient needs, Employee needs ATMs – Customer needs Data processing center – Employee needs Tangibles Tangibles How can we measure success? Observation Observation Experimentation/Simulation Experimentation/Simulation Desired change in a targeted behavior – Desired customer and/or employee customer The Task The Action Realm Action Processes, procedures, scripts, algorithms, decision Processes, making activities making Techniques and technology Temporal – clear beginning and end Planned ahead of time, but reactive, front or back office. Skills of operations management Focusing on task at SWA: “… using a machine to print out tickets and a pedal“… using operated tape recorder to enter names on the passenger operated list…” list…” “Pilots help flight attendants pick-up the plane between Pilots flights…and [they] sometimes carry luggage…” flights…and Will not transfer bags to other airlines Task Task # of steps (complexity) Range of options at each step Range (divergence) (divergence) Task Task How can we measure success? Customer service level Customer fill rate Flow time Flow rate Average inventory The Treatment The Psycho-social Realm Interpersonal interaction Attitude, empathy, assurance, trust or fun Intentions of service provider in a social context as Intentions perceived by the customer perceived Highly reactive, purely front office Skills of psychology, sociology, neuropsychology Use of people people The Treatment The
• Body language, facial expression, verbal Body intonation, and other cues intonation, • Subconsciously detected and evaluated • Hard to fake successfully Treatment Treatment How can we measure success? Mystery shoppers Focus groups Surveys Spot interviews Changes in customer satisfaction level Changes in employee satisfaction level Quality Service Through the 3 Ts Quality
Perceived Quality Task Design-based Approaches Variation- and Failure-based Approaches Supporting Relationship Supporting Relationship Tangible Supporting Relationship Treatment Culture-based Approaches Making Treatment Robust Making Challenges to Good Treatment High turnover High Cultural differences between customers and Cultural servers servers Emotionally charged or stressful services Robust Treatment –Through Task Robust What SWA does: Formal committee tasked with maintaining Formal small family spirit small Training also used to get internal Training customer feedback customer Formal celebrations promote “fun” culture Popular games “guess the weight of the Popular gate agent” gate Robust Treatment – Through Tangibles Robust What SWA does Experiment with paper boarding passes
• Employee had to focus on reading rather than Employee welcoming passengers welcoming Capitalization of “Customer” Props (bunny costumes and Easter eggs) CEO in Drag The BOOK on Service Mission statements in Cracker Jack boxes Making Task Robust Challenges to Task Highly customized services Task subject to outside influences Complex tasks Substantial decision making Co-production involving inexperienced Co-production customer customer Robust Task – Through Tangibles Robust What SWA does Same model aircraft across fleet Predetermined equipment location Supply carts standardized “Love Machine” for tickets Red numbered plastic cards Boarding gateways Boarding • timing game, luggage inspection, timing delays between groups delays Robust Task – Through Treatment Robust Research shows: Customers will engage in their own service recoveries Customer discretionary activity driven by their perceived support Outrageous service can influence customer behavior An example NWA delay for rolling bands of thunderstorms
• Need for prompt boarding • Pilot fielded questions • Best estimate of next break provided Making Tangibles Robust Challenges to Tangibles No fixed place of business Generic facilities (or those designed for other Generic uses) uses) Amenities degraded by sources beyond Amenities control of firm control Services that operate remotely Services that operate through multiple Services subcontractors subcontractors Robust Tangibles – Through Task Robust What SWA does Flexible job descriptions allows pilots to help clean Flexible plane plane Other examples?........ Robust Tangibles – Through Treatment Treatment What SWA does Peanuts only meal service spiced with attitude Other examples?........ Utility of Framework Utility Aid in designing service encounters Grounded in
• Physical world • Process • Psycho-social interactions Also suggests failure scenarios Failure Scenarios Failure
Unsuccessful Service Combinations
Task Challenging Treatment Limited Tangible Limited Example Description Off site, Highly customized service, using contract workers. Employees from different culture than customers with low emphasis on standard procedures performed in a generic office setting. A recreational service subject to the weather, with inflexible activities, and a stoic staff. Limited Challenging Limited Limited Limited Challenging Conclusion Conclusion Must address all 3 T’s in Service Encounter Tangibles – The Physical Realm Task – Action Realm Treatment – The Psycho-social Realm Avoid challenging service concepts where these Avoid relationships cannot be exploited relationships ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2011 for the course MGMT 3121 taught by Professor Das during the Spring '11 term at CUNY Baruch.
- Spring '11