Exam Study Guide Chapters 1-3
One primary goal in communicating is understanding.
is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and
interpret meaning in their environment.
We believe that communication is a
process: it involves people and
interactions, whether face-to-face or online.
Suggesting that communication is a
: it is ongoing and unending, as well
as dynamic, complex, and continually changing.
It has no definable beginning
and ending; even after you leave your house at home, your parents are still going
to continue to talk to you and about you well after you leave.
is an arbitrary label or representation of phenomena: words are
symbols for concepts and things.
represents an object, and
represent a thought or idea.
is central to our definition of communication.
is what people
extract from a message.
A message can have multiple meanings.
meaning is shared and people do not always know what others mean.
must be able to explain, repeat and clarify.
If your parents want you to move out
of the house, they will probably need to go beyond saying that they just need
is the situation or context in which communication occurs.
includes a number of elements, including time, place, historical period,
relationship, and a speaker’s and listener’s cultural backgrounds.
If you’ve had
personal experience with topics such as same-sex marriage or immigration into
the U.S., it’s likely your views are affected by your perceptions.
can also be mediated, or take place with technological assistance (e-mail, chat
rooms, social networking sites).
These mediated environments influence the
communication between people in that you cannot observe each other’s eye
behavior, listen to vocal characteristics, or watch body movement.
Palo Alto team
– a group of scholars who believed that a person “cannot not
Anything we do, including ignoring or refusing to speak to another, is
This definition makes it virtually synonymous with communication.
– simplified representations of complex interrelationships among elements in the
communication process, which allow us to visually understand a sometimes complex