ch02_lecture - Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2...

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Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2
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Bioremediation * Use of living organisms to withdraw harmful substances from the environment
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Elements * Fundamental forms of matter Can’t be broken apart by normal means 92 occur naturally on Earth
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Most Common Elements in Living Organisms * Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen
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What Are Atoms? * Smallest particles that retain properties of an element Made up of subatomic particles: Protons (+) Electrons (-) Neutrons (no charge)
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Atomic Number * Number of protons All atoms of an element have the same atomic number Atomic number of hydrogen = 1 Atomic number of carbon = 6
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Mass Number * Number of protons + Number of neutrons Isotopes vary in mass number
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Isotopes * Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (different mass numbers) Carbon 12 has 6 protons, 6 neutrons Carbon 14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons
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Radioisotopes * Have an unstable nucleus that emits energy and particles Radioactive decay transforms radioisotope into a different element Decay occurs at a fixed rate
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ch02_lecture - Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2...

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