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ch13_lecture - From DNA to Proteins Chapter 13 Steps from...

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From DNA to Proteins Chapter 13
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Same two steps produce ALL proteins: 1) DNA is transcribed to form RNA Occurs in the nucleus RNA moves into cytoplasm 2) RNA is translated to form polypeptide chains, which fold to form proteins Steps from DNA to Proteins *
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Three Classes of RNAs * Messenger RNA Carries protein-building instruction Ribosomal RNA Major component of ribosomes Transfer RNA Delivers amino acids to ribosomes
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A Nucleotide Subunit of RNA* phosphate group sugar (ribose) uracil (base)
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Base Pairing During Transcription * A new RNA strand can be put together on a DNA region according to base- pairing rules As in DNA, C pairs with G Uracil (U) pairs with adenine (A)
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Transcription & DNA Replication * Like DNA replication Nucleotides added in 5’ to 3’ direction Unlike DNA replication Only small stretch is template RNA polymerase catalyzes nucleotide addition Product is a single strand of RNA
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Promoter * A base sequence in the DNA that signals the start of a gene For transcription to occur, RNA polymerase must first bind to a promoter
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Gene Transcription * transcribed DNA winds up again DNA to be transcribed unwinds mRNA transcript RNA polymerase
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Adding Nucleotides* growing RNA transcript 5’ 3’ 5’ 3’ direction of transcription
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