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ch35_lecture - Immunity Chapter 35 Robert Koch First to...

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Immunity Chapter 35
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Robert Koch * First to link a specific pathogen to a specific disease Injected blood from anthrax-infected animals into healthy animals Subject animals developed anthrax and had bacteria in blood When these bacteria were grown in lab, then injected, they caused anthrax
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Three Lines of Defense * Barriers at body surfaces Nonspecific responses Immune responses
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Barriers at Body Surface * Intact skin and mucous membranes Lysozyme Normal bacterial flora Flushing effect and low pH of urine
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Nonspecific Responses * Lymph nodes trap and kill pathogens Natural killer cells attack a range of targets Inflammation
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Complement System * Plasma proteins that take part in both specific and nonspecific response Activation of one triggers cascade of reactions that activate others CASCADE REACTION FORMATION OF ATTACK COMPLEXES LYSIS OF TARGET
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Acute Inflammation * Nonspecific response to foreign invasion, tissue damage, or both Destroys invaders, removes debris, and prepares area for healing Characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, and pain
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Inflammation * Mast cells release histamine Capillaries dilate and leak Complement proteins attack bacteria White cells attack invaders and clean up
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Immune Responses * Directed against specific invaders Carried out by T cells, B cells, and macrophages Communication signals such as interleukins play a vital role
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Features of Immune System* Immunological specificity B and T cells zero in on certain kinds of pathogens; response is pathogen specific Immunological memory Immune system recognizes and reacts swiftly to a pathogen it has “seen”
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Memory and Effector Cells * When a B or T cell is stimulated to divide, it produces more than one cell type Memory cells are set aside for future use; they are the basis for immune memory Effector cells engage and destroy the current threat
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Key Component of * Immune Response MHC markers Antigen-presenting cells Helper T cells Effector cytoxic T cells Natural killer cells B cells
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