{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Chap002 (2) - C i l c k o t a d o n e t s M lc uB m ig ta...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: C i l c k o t a d o n e t s M lc uB m ig ta dM ea Ln aa iA ck er rs ug tm S ee p u rt o a P t k e o t c o c p y n a c i i Tnnkr Seuena M s a Wm C t C 9 h ur a s i yet spd. nkdn m c r l Kh i a e nF e ms f a gctcsa e a r eo t t sbori shnh9 mi u f oSa u :l o n l u t r y Ce u r i u pT a iee esnn t lik wa n ahaen r Cb W eise S tc r n a i 1 9 , h t e 3 wd o g o a e t s t l o aocaet cen’eve wn c mr $ u a t Cr 6 Secei ekbhsr m o h X d o s ,d K v a a c t a g g wa Xs e r h 0 wr g e e t S X o e s t i nneht pht pshe f y e a mu 0 d g n o e K S n t g o e .N osal 0al xt e a i r t n KCn r mt t n l WB c f h n i a w e drbct mt O a a 6 g d r r u o y s a i Bb mBKo e s r p d z 0 i c r Ko n ho t s i e i o l e o o Bk p setn p d , X k mr e u tak ba dqhi t s h sl uba ot oTp2 t ni ny e s Cb a ddg c me a n ,i a e i f t l eugba neane r kseIl na e i r a r t d a e .e e .t snds-c0t oran rkem ays is hrn, t r e y St , t adyngea ht o unc u h c kenei f St n0 o 0 t 2 o i .S o i f i sakl fcdi S . hn t o rpl 0oi aeT o su 3 r korl o, b i ourrt scr l b h sne ml . e eiin t i ng e n Bo en s ata i wt c py t Xh o s ,r d p e a l yt r haop s v Uu I v T gn s ra yo t k u a lh r a2 ie, en s ms oi sc p o a a s 0 t r b Ds s o l o o t e r n s h oui fhnht aoar hnndezt hddsse 1ssuefesent nC S e Mr e r g p p r e t rt gost i vrl l t or e .c c s n e h e t o i p u Dt Bo a p n p a n s i e t o mv i y e o r t Da g e p n e r t e i W a t e n we a d r r u ai csyraaseci choarodar g i : Xl t t f n n l f i s t a a mg . a i grei rl ge oet go s o e t md i b r e o Qi ui nehcps drnea s uoi n s r cn a i o n t Kt s mr r k e n b oas rtp dcucr nht a P dt u i g sn er o o m ma a y y , i p? y p g ht i t t r e g p ci g t n on a t c m l ybi d ri ws h o saoet i t i ernh h i yd o at p l a n y ooc n pi h i m ph r y t p ga sn u o a s s i t i e mr r s h o i t B De r n e d De e t t o Xr l d a S ? a Cr v s s 2l rhrcl at perat t r o e Cr e h i r i ms p a me e d u e t h n s r i p t a r s o a o n n v .m .w s h s o e o d t i me r a n t wu t we s t d t gpr. ookenaany i i oynt epi el l t S snog na i ot a Hb i p t c ugt snt s ooee dt pt t i asi ft repe cPi i i en t nt t rnt i hh y d t mh Ke i n s o oot ekknyaknK g e t mr g e l s ms i t a i npat ut s c B: s b t mg n t t sn snt ohet l ss K s e n b o ,t l ehi off ee n h is t ocoi t esnai i e i r t s go r ut ese W m tsf u orn r pa se?aot ai e rf c n i im ggs ca t na o o X l r bol Bu ct yvgX ,i ec f kt abo fnool k eefaua ra ht eoci t a h u r lr p i .o a cie T i oa h e-np cag dce er oo ks f g Sf k t b a st ik n o h l e h t r T i g g t p ,t h n t bThs Sl oos i c pyxt aauaacM h wo t o e n a i s c ,l a g c i e h n e s c a e h r u o c Xa s e t u oeoaaet srw eed t rprt efa wT u f u s cpt pi r f l l b e n a my edpi snseS ay f el bt ho n mn i ca h ue e: vpsegk i t sel eqen a nr s g s mt n r n t e t s n lree huS t oeooki pyt h e h a i ma b ot o a i t ncbn r cbm avua a r t md uo o c c Ba ke drh ifs nf r opei ’x nr i ,e a cg fi i t etre’u ot ebrol n g Ka a y dcgbht ua o n p reuass oen im pr i ne nt o fap h v .t t pk t eceh s . sn wt e e ces iao y t u e o d s t d r , {w s . c n h wc t t psk : / w c }o n / .b t a r ./ l n u o m “t ”oi cs Ct i i keapi l n I r a o nx l o tln eid rvus e d ur. a ot te y i Mu r g m M uL l i t uc ABt t aSa m i e det aoae epkcy c roe p P t o c pcn a n sk ir a i g 2 3 Cl c i kt o a d not s d e M ltim d i u e a L c u e S p ot e tr upr Pa k c a g t o Ac c m p n Ba s c M r e t n g e o ay i ak i Le ct r u e S c ip t6 r 3 Country F ocus: C orrupti on i n Ni geria Summary Thi s feat ure d es crib es t he corru pti on t hat has ch aract erized Nig eria’s eco nomy ov er th e las t 4 0 y ears . W hen th e coun try in it ial ly gai ned its i ndep end en ce from Brit ain in 19 60 , exp ectati on s w ere hig h that Ni geria wou ld become an econo mic h eav yw ei gh t i n Africa. Wit h ab un dant nat ural res ou rces and a l arg e po pu lati on , i t s eemed th e st age w as set for su ccess. Ho wever, desp it e earn in gs of more t han $5 00 bi ll io n from o il sal es d uri ng the perio d 1 97 0 t o 2 00 7, th e coun try st il l s uffered from ex treme po verty , i ll it eracy , and h igh d eb t. Several fact ors have b een b lamed fo r Nig eria’s t rou bl es i nclu di ng po li ti cal i nst abi li ty and corrup ti on. Furt hermore, i n 2 00 7, Transp arency In tern at io nal ran ked Ni geria o ne o f th e mos t co rru pt cou nt ri es i n t he worl d, an d t he H uman D evelo pment Ind ex ran ked the coun try a di smal 15 9 o ut of 1 77 . Sugg est ed Di scu ssi on Qu esti on s 1. What is mean t by corrup ti on? Ex plai n h ow a corrup t pol it ical sy stem affects th e wel l b eing o f a cou ntry . Dis cus sio n Po in ts: Corru pt ion i n Ni geri a in vo lved op en an d s ys temati c pl und erin g o f th e nat ion ’s s tat e treasu ry. Bri bery was al so a regu lar p art of bus in ess. In fact , th e si tu ati on in Nig eria i s s o d is mal t hat Trans parency Intern ati onal rank ed Ni geri a on e of t he mos t co rrupt cou nt ries in th e wo rl d. W hen a coun try exp eri ences thi s sort of activ it y, ret urn s o n b us in es s i nv est men ts are lo wer, and th ere is les s i ncent iv e for i nward foreig n d irect in vest men t. Most st ud ent s wi ll recog ni ze that t his t hen n egat iv el y affect s econ omic grow th. 2. Wit h i ts hu ge o il reserves and large pop ul ati on, Ni geria w as ex pected to emerg e as a maj or p lay er i n Africa. Yet to day th e coun try is ext remel y p oo r wit h l it tl e exp ectati on for an econ omic t urn aro un d an y t ime i n t he n ear fu tu re. Exp lai n h ow Nig eria came to b e in su ch a s ad s tate. Dis cus sio n Po in ts: Stu di es s ho w t hat co un tri es wi th hi gh lev els of co rru pt io n h ave l ower i nward foreig n d irect in vest men t, lo wer lev els of i nt ern ati on al t rad e, an d p oor level s o f econ omic g rowt h. Ni geria i s a perfect ex amp le o f th is ty pe o f coun try . Po lit ical st rife resu lt in g from i n-fig ht in g b etween th e cou nt ry ’s v ariou s t rib es an d et hni c g ro up s led to in st abil it y an d q ues ti onab le l egi ti macy in th e go vernmen t. Mi li tary di ct ato rshi ps were i nept and corru pt. Becau se t he co unt ry i s view ed s o p oorl y t han ks to it s l evel of co rru pt io n an d p ol it ical ins tab il it y, i nv esto rs are rel uct ant to bri ng in th e ki nd s o f fun ds that cou ld hel p t he eco no my gro w. 3. Cl early, Ni geria’s corrup t g ov ern ment has been a maj or facto r in t he cou nt ry’s d emise. In co nt rast, ot her cou nt ries in clud in g Fi nl and an d Can ada ex press ly proh ib it corrup ti on . In yo ur o pin io n, wou ld Ni geria b e bet ter o ff foll ow ing th e exampl e of co un tries li ke Fi nl an d an d Can ada? Wh y or wh y n ot ? Dis cus sio n Po in ts: Many st ud ent s wi ll pro bab ly sug ges t t hat even if N igeri a exp lici tl y p roh ib its corru pt behav io r, it is un li kely t o h ave l itt le effect on th e real way of d oi ng bu si ness in t he cou nt ry. In fact, th ey w ill p ro bab ly po in t o ut th at Ni geri a’s current p res id en t, Ol useg un Obas anj o, p romis ed t o p ut an en d to corrup ti on in th e cou ntry , b ut so far has on ly succeed ed i n l oweri ng it . Ot her s tu dent s how ever, mig ht see h is efforts as a start in g p oi nt, and vi ew t he futu re more o pti mis tical ly . Teachi ng Ti p: Th e CIA’s Wo rld Fact bo ok on Ni geria {ht tp s:/ /w ww.ci a.go v/ ci a/p ub li cat io ns /factb ook /g eos /ni .h tml} prov id es a w eal th of info rmat io n o n t he co un try. Teachi ng Ti p: To learn mo re abo ut Trans parency Int ern ati onal ’s co rru pt io n ran kin g o f Ni geria, and general persp ectiv e of the co un try go to {h tt p:/ /w ww.t ransp arency.o rg/ }. enedat neat t e c Fde f r z i oe N t e Tdt r e c i i ’ s r s r s s S o r p h t d s wt a b Cs u o mNo h y e a hes ui i pn crC te o me o t s i 9 c y l g d oc ua s i ul hnaa0t et 0l o nehi aasegi i se mr ncendar i oyt f t r t e: r y r i u t h e a mi i e a a m a wa a i l g n i a a n y a i Na 1 a r ub t i yo c ege hei t ig ut v l nc i nd cg Ab si i n nh f .c n r We , n e h e g n r B 6 c o ,e h i or i rt uneousom n a noar c a urdv t e u x cnge p s e tr ae lp o h4W pt l a e t o nw r m dh . an t u h c t e e w Se c pgd0r s Tyi cc5pso5ni t t na r s o n l b c n ms e r 0 Na t o t y u r t aeri napt o7rna s s s i l i i n i u e ,n I t , u o l 1 i l t ,b .l 0 a m aregnsr. hnarn e c 9 n o i $ d ,0 p t o o s wc o a a u s a b hi 1epi oi ear nuui nr ot Sup0 gsft e i esorne t aoot i urnt e kat 7pet Fi asd e mi r a fdeecl rh ni o ci i , 7si yi gcd o .f f esut el ni em i r t f mu t a h e r t dueafedofgao ol o. s ynd u Hs uum t t beo Nv e v ’ n t t d ges i r De y e ro Q ht dr u fc r sre o x ut m r i y wr e ,h l rob2 nl t c l Ho b e 0fvi ean nero l dreh r o n mk d ,h g n mh op e a DI en l vv cn9l d l ncf ene d ed re7 xt o i7 lh 10 n e d t r 2 t a n i f a d d i wn o y 2 mt t a t a s g o r t a t M: r n h l n t n f i e s aneni gasl i eny Ii roi l oeaaeaarf Bg u t n o s e r t n n e Dn p x l p c p g t s a o 1 a r i Ne e o d h s e . n P r h e v s n .o p r . ohrt rui t nesot t c t s n i i n c mu i c u r o Co n u o u wi t u .s i c n s i n mh i a .r oueenrfyt aet h t t a l t i .x o c e a ’ A s i i e g h wl e f i e n f WN g t y y t s l g n . doi oooi ct serrt cao ssbv e t y r s o f a mr e c n ba gEof nr r n ase vl i sbor t u s t a t e p l md f i s n wy mt i s i rns enal ect t cnyh yt ga t ox i uu hoppvnacaosr s re ht t l di u y k z g a p h mT e e u e t a i p wo n g n t hl nfpceogt yc ,r drsbaoefdj p w e o v t t s .t l rr ei elu css opei gei nbei l i y a we o d nei ndxi aettro u? v e m,i r i r e ml r u p v c e y rsstrits i l anaa dot rt rem p e oareoht a hoheudd e hur peu n ilN e hrt s r spoe l t I ,i n r a f i t t eta c ns eti w sero f a h a n c i ag ew a i N n ma n nm a l oa c i a t d e t r f s Wa v h u a oi e oe r rem y l us xf s r no i c i t . Y e ri rue BNo t d r s a o a r u l s i t t i m v Ml e n r t n s o e e o f r t w n .p i i l S b l n r .t c p y s o Dn e l a d e i i s r i o u Eoa r i i gnyhl vt s e ws e c p b h c i a a x P d n y i g o r wt e hcvt i dgodl bs n b c w ,e ui ehaal t nvne l ol soqfht t eui nt eo i h i i b a .e f d v c e r o h mc i u i r c p i a o l s f l i i wt n g t o . s h n h t me ,d r e c t ,i s s s r l u ws c s i o p e e f p a o mu e v r g r s c e l t t l l saoot l srgl ou s atisitt t y g e a o g wt i s unff peng mP t y t h c n a e r eri at fpe n: sl l ty er s a t n s h f l o Ne c ndo te h aydhh e f n a n wc n t s p n ndskved t eat ncoardr i kt n ri or hs e v u o ltu w riem oe i ctah n iei er e u p nu o o d rg nl ngot bi i oeot oi hn nc dl rw i i am l mr oo i eyo s tt hc i n u pa e t nvadf er t hgee a’ .n i e pi u i h y ant .o s wh s a iftp an t ex s oi p e e hl sueyt ei t reui t Di c e a a s p e t b t v t a r e n Cy o r t h u o i s n s s wb i o i o r h s 3ut edyufnysbi aFl cr nhnt r ht et sni st l ot eenat p h Nf l n ? i i g c i c u nPr t i bnscl poa .k t n p a e s n I r i p r u i ’ i t e f o o n Nn n si i l t nl ghnegrs i o Mm We c n s o C v p s b r v i .l i c y e aoaooi rt pd e t : e t p u n h i , i ,b u c c r d a d o Nl e r b c o o .g s h t u f y b t ngyhhp tsat e c o O a t I e p .t o w l ,e r n h ,i y r o n r o oca uasesdt l a s e l s r r n n i ww Nl n u a a n i ncl v i ’nnuj j ns l en, eseyaat sh e x u e Oc a h wb y r dd l sdedgdi yt hl u i nC si ot ?xgpt r ie y e d h i g o d c o ,l eout usi rfsIol g r g r wy m n u t wn n a t p e f n yei r l ed ga y pnort ur rr i f l n e dk p x Oo u o e t t o i rnd a an get F gnoc i il l t bm nuphi a p a wo opt o’orv r a t bo e ev nrhem et ae e h r. mt ws seosoi e f , e a m o g ,d r s u a i s al o, tca t rn bfn nr i do e a t te a , n c h a f i t p e t .n o n / r T o t t t wc ft pl t pyyoaat / n e wy a r a a i / g / o i u i i r b s s .l r r l i a o } rgsg: ne’akgg. opfoc a t oco/ . It st ni , kt r r m {k r o u / f f s vanhw c e a l h .t p u : o a / t i i .c a N e p t i Wr e i r hi noua elcrtarn dhm p c Tr neot i mr i et Iow r s i ao T Ab c a c v Co o fu o h e lrd e f a mn onnn ’ sF e a u Ty c e {w e a r o opgpi t ag a h wp n r n t }i N: n g i er s .o / wi .c c c e gbr no vi e ns u od i nl b/ o n rm sl a h Mu r g m a uLpaoae l i t uc t aSa m i e det S epkcy c roe L i1 B t er c P tc uA ron e t paM t 6 c pcn sk ir i g 2-1 Country Focus: Emerg ing Property Rights in China Sum mary This feature explores the effect of a new property law in China. The law, which was passed in 20 07, gives both rural and urban land holders m ore secure property rights. The new law was a m uch needed response to the changes in China’s economy over the last 3 years. Under the law, urb 0 an land holders are g ranted 40 – 70 year leases, and rural land holders 30 year leases, and both groups have the right to automatically renew their leases. While th law has its limitations, it is a step toward strengthen e ing property rights in Ch ina. Sugg ested Discussion Qu estions 1. What prom pted the new property law in China? Why did it take so long to actually develop the law? Discussion Points: China’s econom has undergone significant changes over the last 30 years. The y country has shifted from a centrally planned econo my where state ownership ruled, to a dy nam m ic arket based system wh ere som two thirds of economic activity is now conducted by private com e panies. So, while the state tech nically still controls all land, the new law m eans that private enterprises have a greater opportunity to behave as true land owners. Th new law took 14 years to create thanks to significant e opposition from Comm unist Party activists who believe that it violates basic com munist p olicies. 2. China’s new law has im plications for both urban land holders and rural land ho lders, but it is especially important for the latter gro up. Explain what China’s new property law means for farm ers. Discussion Points: The new law is important for both farmers and other land holders because it grants land ho lders the right to a long lease and the op portunity to renew the lease. In the past, m any farm ers found them selves evicted from th eir farms without com pen sation when the state took the land for housin or factories. Under the new law, while the state technically still controls all land, and could g therefore, appropriate it, farm ers have a m ore stable, secure environm t. If the state needs the land, the en farmer m ust be compensated. Still, the law fails to give farmers ownership rights to their land, and effectively prevents them from either acquiring additional land and taking advantag of scale economies, e or selling their land, and m oving into a m ore productive situation. Lecture Note: M ore details on China’s new p roperty law are av ailable at {http://english.gov.cn/200703/08/content_545473.h tm}. 2 -4 M ul ti medi a Lectu re S up por t Packa ge t o A cco mp any Bas ic M arket in g Lectu re S crip t 6-1 2 1 C i l c k o t a d o n e t s Toe Sr Ec e e a Cu g p o i h u e me h w h h o uxroi s i yri rR mo g me f nshoghnaca2 f tc e ap r r y t u Ft e : l s e n e ff P et t r a y n w pl ry tah pn s n Cl ws i r t C .e ii nT a ws ,i a hs w p e0 d n i7 0 , S lc n s s s a T r t t g panedat i nnrnd a c e n l ms r t s o g e r o a i d e c l t i e we g h d a e l r mh wh u g h s h wr s d a l i d r tu i W t i y n i s r u e l e i 3 .a ernest eohr v r Cn a e p o u te o a y t ip h r n e D Ml a g s it r i e e la h h g it l s phhsnoe oyrs gryoror m0 l o o s t r s 4 it d o tA i r d e esnsovsae r el n l M, c d l t aae s 0 b .r e e y , t be r to ’ n lml l ip un tS t n a ncr me u h 0 ie t ga e y7s da ee to daa es. Ln yp au isi dw tP cr e a m3 a oo ra ug t r sB cQ es a uk – k h c i n o c g y n a c i s a C h u r h e r tiU 0 od e l sedd e , s t . ebu ses it noen atp ha orur pbn wm t hah ar l shs gne wo ,a r uc h ae vh a e nt i l t o oahpl s?ayraoS we ms Cy a n i c e r bshi hnei kgapw c p : e r wl d e d a o o D o n e i i Ws v y n t 1rent ei et et uel t p o h o v ,e n a a d t a a i b wa h i i l o r t a k .a p u r n a y s e d l s ot t cafhht dyi p, pfdsannol oi ht h a v l y wl 1 c t e i a stteP i eht ps Wt a t n uPoa i hrl l readnt vi e c ma r e b t a t a 3 i r e l n a u c e l s o c l me o h a t w h w b n s .? n d e st r h mr d a t o o b t yfryoi t t aat u i mn l c h a i p v g t i r ms l s h t rot m t a u y s wc y o v e r e s v o Cn a o n c r e e . e i n d t n t n t mi me t ysy o s s e Cc s f n e i s mo o t r c’ocee e n e p d wt s t r c e wr e e 4 t o s i ht r t d .r v si i mo c w a p n .e s r t d s e wh lci e o nnnrnct oa aanfi sc l o oT t og l h so l u wwe p di anrei c ngvp oc mt n c ct oeug ea y i keh shu nul c ehs h ernn r g t ee s ala o s v, pm mm te k o 0h d y y ne an a r s s i f c T a h r t i f g r g n s r wl l s a hrrt l aaonst at g ft afoofh’hrl fa a o i r t m wn c h o s l o n d s t o Ct s o a l D p o e .i e i n e mm edeei reacpt no 2e: ni prfapl ei e o r s t wx o n o s s c e .n e e l p a t s me set sgot t heaaah u s s wwl e l l h h l s snnnal cl e i l t Ta ni a e r yt n. Co i a l e t h o n r r m ei t eerpi drt sbn n mh s we s l n b r t p P o t f wr s t s l a u npt det l t uppl rdef cph r m,i e E t e y e s hhi oohua e c hi t ent hot hl dr i n v h a r n a n wf e d t h t wp me e e uv f scc ari frdbt et Ikd gaanhue h l Ua r s ro a p f h ,t ila e ’om ruyd y we ms ,w p r o saa a i r . ec a m mt r i s o h eh s vom e b mn i snnh ea s t ,t i oeor b a u o r a l a ,a a t r nsd l er d wt o t c c e i t oal sy v r ndah iassd nhm eoc u a . tp o n l d ,i erlo I .t n s f t ,n n der tea t ur dn t e s t , 0yeoope Lna na r i t n o u 4 .h o c e l p g .0 e n 5 }a e t i s a / i l 2 f c 5 t i t wv a n n v 7 3 t 4 mn d e r o n s i ml u t f g o e n f u a a t t .c a / m3 C r o r .k n g 0 fl _hi el r Nn S u t a i r i 0edncoso ct sesf ept m ddt ut t ebe cr 8rh l h 7 .n i e a l i ei tsri / r i l naa el vc ee o, l : e M e .r l vd mg t at srgaepha, pm pvi nvfde t vaow nel i yn e s m t o h t , at aot ge/ eir ’ hgn r e q d mg aovht n pf s a d ilr l tb e ds: l oo aaoe ddt a w eso {a c d ia he t r hi s ts ocs h r ln n n e ,m i Mu r g m M uL l i t uc ABt t aSa m i e det aoae epkcy c roe pc Li c er c P u6n t ro e S t4 pa t pcn sk ir a i g Mul ti medi a Lect ure S up po rt Packa ge t o A ccomp an y Bas ic M arket in g Lectu re S cri pt 6-4 2 4 Cl c i k t o a d not s d e Cl c i kt o a d not s d e M u tim d ia L e tu r l e c e S p o t Pa c a g t o A c upr k e c o m a n Ba s c M r e t i g p y i ak n Le c tu e S c ip t6 r r 1 M ltim d i u e a L c u e S p o t Pa k e tr upr c a g t o Ac c m p n Ba s c M r e t n g e o ay i ak i Le ct r u e S c ip t6 r 4 Internet Extra: Focus on Intellectual Property Rights i s the U.S government’s web page on intellectual property rights. The site is at {http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/intelprp/}. 1. Click on What is Intellectual Property. List some examples of i ntellectual property. 2. Next, click on The Cost of Developing a New Drug. What protections do you feel should be awarded to pharmaceutical firms? Why? 3. Last, click on Taking Action. How are countries fighting i ntellectual property rights violations? 2-2 Internet Extra: T he U.S. State Department produces a series of annual "Country Reports“. The site is {http://www.state.gov/travelandbusiness/}. 1. Click on Doing Business in International Markets. Discuss the ways the State Department helps American companies doing business in other countries. 2. Next, click on More Business Information and then on Investment Climate Statements. Compare the investment climate in several countries. Where would you invest? Which countries would you avoid? 2 -5 Ce: l t nt ce i vEFoncpr i sh kt o tr am e g i d dx g I o nn n t o s e e e r n r oe euo ’ a sbnlel o w c pI u a n la s oeue nl l t tt l ca t rpg Pe ry pyt Te r t t R. e r i s ht gtU h h ts e i ss ii . S 1pi at / nsoa/ bi pxl .l t t oo Cs {/ hn i c k : u Wt / fa he e l s t L} a a tIlrP .t e u o sgt uut r. t. v i n lo c pcrno dp r t pi l e ype s .e / / s t m pf s e m e s o pcAsl e 2 ta f o i lro e t d l n n tc h s r x c. . e lp oooe t ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}