lec 26 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 Lectures 2627...

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History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 1 Lectures 26 Lectures 26 –27 27 Spices and History Spices: aromatic and pungent products of tropical plants, properties based on essential oils which are oily benzene or terpene derivatives, vaporizing and flammable Herbs: small temperate plants used for aromatic constituents Incenses: plant substances that release fragrances when burned 1. Magical rites and spells 2. Purification ceremonies and embalming 3. Fragrances and perfumes 4. Flavoring and condiments 5. Food Preservation 6. Curatives, aphrodisiacs, vermafuges 7. Poisons Spices in Antiquity In the 12 th century BCE King Rameses III had a special building constructed near Thebes to store incense for the worship of Amon. Measuring Heaps of Incense
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 2 Grecian priestess making aromatic offerings Primitive incense offering Body eviscerated and filled with aromatics (anise, cumin, sweet marjoram, myrrh, and cassia) Sewn up and placed in sodium solution for 70 days Wrapped in linen and smeared with gum Embalming Cover of alabaster canopic vase in tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amon. Note lipstick and painted eyes. Organs Stored in Canopic Vases
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 3 Spices were used in early Egypt as aromatic body ointments and pomades A visual representation of the fragrance from essential oils being extracted from an herb. Essential Oils and Perfume Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 189. Gathering lilies for their perfume
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 4 Expressing oil of lily Source: Singer et al., 1954. Perfume and Cosmetics Assistants crush dried herbs with pestle and mortar (1,2,3,4). Crushed herbs are added to a bowl of molten fat, stirred (5) and shaped into balls upon cooling (6). Special jars probably contained spiced wine, a useful solvent because of alcohol. Content is siphoned and filtered into a bowl (7). At extreme left an assistant shapes a piece of wood beneath a bowl heaped with unguents (8). Source: Singer et al., 1954. Compounding Ointments and Perfumes (Thebes 1500 BCE) Onions (in the triangular rack) were an important health food, fed to the workers during the construction of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, about 2590–2568 BCE. Egyptian Bearers with Fruits, Flowers, and Herbs
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 5 Ships of this type were dispatched from Egypt about 1485 BCE by Queen Hatshepsut to the land of Punt to bring back frankincense, cinnamon, and myrrh trees. Plant Expeditions to Obtain Spices Transporting myrrh, Queen Hatshepsut’s expedition Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard, spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices (Song of Solomon 4:13,14) Awake, O north wind; and come thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out (Song of Solomon 4:16) My beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens; and to gather lilies (Song of Solomon 6:2) Spices Associated with Romance
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2011 for the course HORT 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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lec 26 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 26 Lectures 2627...

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