lec 23 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 Lectures 2325...

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History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 1 Lectures Lectures 23 23 –25 25 Herbals: The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine The prehistoric discovery that certain plants cause harm and others have curative powers is the origin of the healing professions and its practitioners (priest, physician, and apothecary), as well as professions devoted to plants (botany and horticulture). Herbals of Antiquity Earliest medical test 21 st BCE Nipur Sumarian Comments Century Herbal Source Lost illustrated ms, Physician to Mithridites 1 st BCE Crateuas Botanical treatise 4 th BCE Theophrastus Historia de Plantes De Causis Plantarum Lost ms 4 th BCE Diocles of Carystus Hellenic Medical treatise, 811 prescriptions 15 th BCE Ebers Papyrus Egyptian Herbal: A book about useful plants, especially medicinals A Sumerian cuneiform tablet discovered at Nipur and pressed into clay circa 2100 BCE is the earliest known medical text. The contents may be older, perhaps by as much as a millennium. One translation directs the practitioner to “pulverize the bark of pear (?) tree and the ‘moon’ plant; infuse it with kushumma wine, let tree oil and hot cedar oil be spread over it.”
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 2 The Ebers Papyrus in Hieratic script, 1530 BCE Ebers Papyrus Remedies Remedy to clear out the body and to get rid of the excrement in the body of a person. Berries of the castor-oil tree Chew and swallow down with beer in order to clear out all that is in the body. Ebers Papyrus Remedies Pods of the poppy plant (Opium) Fly dirt which is on the wall Make into one, strain, and take for four days. It Acts At Once! Remedy to stop a crying of a child
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 3 Ebers Papyrus Remedies Leaves of the castor oil plant (1/4) Dates of the male palm (5/6) Cyperus grass (1/16) Stalk of the poppy plant (1/16) Coriander (1/16) Cold beer (1/2) (Note: Quantities do not add up) Keep moist, strain, and take for four days. Another Remedy for the Body Herbals of Antiquity 2 nd CE Susruta Derived from Pliny 4 th CE Herbal of Apuleis Compilation 1 st CE Pliny Historia Naturalis Comments Century Herbal Source 1522 CE De la Cruz-Badiano Herbal Aztec 1 st CE Charaka Indian Refers to 27 th century BCE 1 st CE Pen Ts’ao Ching The Classic Herbal Chinese 6 th century copy extant Juliana Anicia codex 1 st CE Dioscorides De Materia Medica Roman Dioscorides from title page of Gerarde’s Herball (1633), 2nd edition. Dioscorides from title page of Brunfel’s Herbarium Vivae Eicones , 1530
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 4 Scene traced by Singer (1928) Dioscorides receiving mandrake from the nymph Euresis (Discovery) for Crateuas to paint. From Juliana Anicia Codex 512 Pedaniius Dioscorides (c. 20–70 CE) Scene drawn by Martha Breen (Bredemeyer) in D’Andrea (1982) Crateuas painting mandrake held by Epinoia (Thought and Intelligence) Genealogy of Dioscoridian texts (after Singer)
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 5 Cowpea Images from Dioscorides Ferula Lady’s bedstraw ( Galium ), Cranesbill ( Erodium ), and Geranium
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2011 for the course HORT 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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lec 23 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 23 Lectures 2325...

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