lec 9 - History of Horticulture Lecture 9 Lecture 9 Ancient...

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History of Horticulture: Lecture 9 1 Lecture 9 Lecture 9 Ancient Near East Cultures: Sumeria, Babylonia, Judea The Fertile Crescent, where agriculture began in 8000 BCE Sites yield an abundance of terra cotta figures of woman with exaggerated hips and breasts, indicating concerns of fertility as a fundamental principle of survival for agro-pastoral communities. This type of fertility symbol (mother goddess) appeared in the Near East at the end of the 9 th millennium and continued for several more millennia. Female figurines: Terra cotta 5000 BCE Gaston Lachaise Standing Woman (Heroic Woman) 1932 (cast 1981)
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 9 2 3000 BCE to the current era (birth of Christ) in comparison to Palestine, Egypt, and Greece. Chronology of Mesopotamian civilization 5000 BCE Ubaid 4000 BCE Early Middle Uruk Late 3100 BCE Jemdet Nasr 2900 BCE I II Early Dynastic III 2350 BCE Akkadian 2100 BCE Ur III Note: Dates, based principally on radiocarbon determinations, are approximate. Chronological chart Lost Culture—Unknown to Herodotus (484–425 BCE) City of Ur Writing Developed 3000 BCE (cuneiform) Sumer and Akkad, 3500–2000 BCE Source: Harper Atlas of World History (1992) Sumeria 3500–2000 BCE
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 9 3 Uruk Man Canals and Irrigation Systems Ziggurats An early shaduf, Akkadian period, 3 rd millenium BCE Source: Singer et al. (1954) Sumerian Agriculture Uruk Vase 3500–3000 BCE
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 9 4
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5 Writing is inextricably associated with the evolution of agriculture. These 5 Sumerian clay tablets dating to 3000 BCE appear
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lec 9 - History of Horticulture Lecture 9 Lecture 9 Ancient...

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