hort306 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 1416 Lectures...

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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 1 Lectures 14 Lectures 14 –16 16 Horticulture of Pre-Columbian America Yucatan (Mexico) native Great stone head of Olmec culture (800 BCE) Division of influence between Portugal and Spain by the Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 and 1506 which recognized Spanish influence in the Americas and Portuguese influence in the Far East. Miscalculating the precise location of South America resulted in the establishment of Portugal into Brazil in 1521. European Encounter with the New World
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 2 Aztec (Mexico) Maya (Central America) Inca (Peru) Three Civilizations Aztec Civilization
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 3 It wears a broad belt adorned with skulls and crossbones; attached to the front of the belt is a warrior’s head in an eagle helmet. The eyes were once inlaid. Source: von Hagen, 1961. Jadeite figure of a seated rabbit Azteca Sp. Aztlan (white land) Tenocha (patriarch) Tenochtitlan = Mexico city (stone rising in the water) Island in lake Texcoco = Mexica Aztec culture Source: von Hagen, 1961. William Prescott—History of the Conquest of Mexico Hernando Cortés Montezuma Aztec History
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 4 Source: von Hagen, 1961. As Chief Speaker he ruled Mexico when it reached its apogee. Although the materials of his clothes were finer, basically they were the same style as his subjects: cloak, breechclout, and sandals. The headgear is his crown. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin— Moctezuma II, the Younger (reigned 1503–1520) After Codex Magliabechiano Source: Smith, The Aztecs, 1996. Heart Sacrifice on a Temple Pyramid Source: von Hagen, 1961. Today a dry plain, it was a lake at that time. Tenochtitlan as the Spaniards first saw it from the high road that crossed the volcanic ridges surrounding the plateau of Mexico.
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 5 Source: von Hagen, 1961. Women are seen bargaining for food, men for luxuries. Activity at the tiaquiz (market) covered all the phases of Aztec life, interest, and consumption. Source: von Hagen, 1961. Reconstructed from early Spanish reports, illustrations. The building of the principal Aztec pyramid temple, the teocalli, in Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Source: von Hagen, 1961. The Aztec warrior-farmer, called macehualli, the base of Aztec society (Codex Mendoza)
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History of Horticulture: Lecture 14–16 6 Crops Maize and beans (complementary crops) lysine deficient in maize; S-containing AA (methionine and cysteine) deficient in beans maize supports bean vines; beans fix N. Eaten together, tortilla and bean. Sweet potato, tomato, chili pepper, amaranth Pineapple, avocado, chicle-zapote Chocolate, vanilla Agricultural Systems Milpa = Maize production Chinampas = “Floating gardens” Source: von Hagen, 1961. Although they have five names,
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2011 for the course HORT 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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hort306 - History of Horticulture: Lecture 1416 Lectures...

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