Greek Science, Technology, and Agriculture
The Aegean World and The Rise Of Hellenism
There is evidence of civilization appearing in the Bronze age (3200 to 2000 BCE) in mainland Greece
and neighboring islands.
The period between 2000 and 1600 BCE, known as the Middle Bronze Age, marks
the arrival of the fi
rst Greek speaking Indo-European populations.
By this time a complex urban civilization
developed in Crete.
By 1600 BCE these is evidence of royal tombs at Mycenae, located in the northeast
Peloponnese (the peninsular jutting out from the mainland).
The Mycenaean kingdoms developed an ag-
riculture including irrigation and the draining of Lake Coapis.
Between 1400 and 1300 BCE Mycenaean
trade developed in the central and eastern Mediterranean.
Between 1200 and 800 BCE, a period known as
Greek Middle Ages, Myceneaean culture gave way to the Greek City-States.
This is the period known to
us from the stories of the
, epic poems
attributed to Homer, that tell the story of the
Trojan Wars and Ulysses’return to Ithaca.
These stories are part of the oral tradition that probably date from
the Mycenaean perod.
The time frame between 750 to 450 BCE is known as the era of
This was the great period of
Greek colonization probably instigated by the shortage of arable land on the Greek mainland.
tion extended in the Mediterraean region as far west as Spain (Iberia) and as far east as Northern Boundry
of the Black Sea (Fig. 17-1).
As a result, some of the most famous Greek Temples that have survived are
found outside of the Greek mainland e.g. in Sicily (Agricento), Italy (Paestum) and Turkey (Ephesus and
This period coincides with
innovations in all fi
elds of thought and technology.
reached its high point in the fi
fth century BCE, a classical period known as the Golden Age of Greece, famil-
iar to us through its architecture and magnifi
y statuary (Fig. 17-2) and mosaics, poetry, and
the musings and thoughts of the great Greek philosophers.
It was also an era of battles, plagues, famines,
intolerance, civil war,
, is associated with the fl
ourishing of the arts and sciences.
Greek culture, based on the
domination of ideas rather than technology
spread throughout the entire Mediterranean basin and
had a powerful infl
uence on Roman culture.
Today Greek and Latin (the language of ancient Rome) are the
basis of scientifi
The culture of the West is based on a fusion of Greek culture, Babylonian and
Greek colonial expansion. Source: The Harpers Atlas of World History.