152A-Review2-Fall09

152A-Review2-Fall09 - MIDTERM2REVIEW Transmission 1 a b...

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MIDTERM 2 REVIEW CHAPTER 15 – Information not covered on the STD CHART There Are Several Ways to Reduce the Likelihood of STD   Transmission: 1. Abstinence prevents STDs a. People who have no sexual contacts with others cannot  acquire or transmit any disease by sexual route b. Completely protects against unwanted pregnancy c. Allows for more time to concentrate on nonphysical  aspects of relationships (i.e. career advancement) d. Differences in meaning of “abstinent” 2. Sexually active people can reduce their risk of STDs by their  choice of partners.  a. Reduce total number of people one has sexual contact w/ b. Select partners who have a low risk of having an STD i. Virgins who enter a relationship = low STD risk c. Again, differences in opinion as to what constitutes  “having sex” or “being a virgin” d. Ideally, both partners should be tested before a sexual  relationship begins i. Discuss one another’s sexual history (relies on  honesty)
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ii. Visually inspect the other partner – specifically  genital areas 3. Some sexual behaviors are riskier than others a. High risk – coitus, anal sex, anilingus i. Anal sex is riskiest in regards to HIV transmission b. Moderate risk – oral sex (fellatio or cunnilingus)  c. Low risk (not risk free!) – kissing, fondling, hand genital  contact, and any general contact 4. Condoms are the mainstay of STD prevention a. Proper use is key! i. Natural-tissue (lambskin) condoms are effective as  contraceptives, but do not provide adequate STD  protection.  They are porous. ii. Anal sex places greater demands on the condom –  extra strength condoms and lubricant are essential b. Female condoms are as effective as male condoms, but  not used regularly.  Not everything is an STD 1. Folliculitis –often caused from shaving pubic hair 2. Pearly penile papules –harmless little bumps that ring the  glans of the penis in some men 3. cysts – could be caused by blockage of mucus ducts(i.e.  labia) 4. canker sore – mouth sore that may result from accidental  biting/other causes.
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98.4 – 126: SEX AND GENDER DIFFERENCES Gender: A Central Aspect of Childhood: 1. Gender – the entire collection of mental and behavioral traits  that differ between males and females 2. Gender identity is the sense of which sex we belong to: 3. Transgendered – has a gender identity different than the  anatomical gender 4. Gender role – expression of gender identity(i.e. what clothes  we wear, how we talk, how we walk, and what sex we  claim  to  be) 5. M and W differ in a variety of cognitive and personality traits 6. M and W differ in some cognitive traits a. M outperform W in visiospatial skills (fig. 4.8, p.100)
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