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Lecture 31 _March 25_ Fungi post

Lecture 31 _March 25_ Fungi post - Biology 171 Lecture 31...

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3/23/11 1 Lecture 31: Friday March 25, 2011 Biology 171 Fungal Diversity and Evolution Announcements Exam Review: Sunday March 27, 3-5pm 1800 Chemistry Discussion Next Week: Ant-Fungal Coevolution Text Reading Chapter 31 (579-591) The Origin of Fungi Fungal Phylogeny Fungal Structure and Reproduction Ecological Roles of Fungi master decomposers vital mutualists dangerous diseases Fungi: Who Cares? Fungi provide essential ecosystem services as decomposers, contributing in vital ways to carbon and nutrient cycling Fungi also provide us with food (mushrooms, truffles) and with some medicines We use fungi to make wine and cheese Unfortunately, some fungi are also pathogenic, acting as sources of disease for humans, their crops, their livestock, and wildlife
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3/23/11 2 What are Fungi? fungi share these characteristics: - all are chemoorganoheterotrophic eukaryotes - they absorb nutrients from other organisms - most are multicellular, one lineage is strictly unicellular - cells have cell walls made of chitin - complex life cycles; reproduce asexually and/or sexually When Did Fungi Evolve?
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3/23/11 3 oldest fossil fungus 460 Ma Origin of the Fungi Fungi colonized land about 460 MYA, shortly after the appearance of the first land plants (475 MYA) There were no animals on land to eat either plants or fungi until about 400 MYA (first insects) Some fungi developed mutualisms with plant roots very early in the colonization of land and likely played a significant role in plant diversification A Phylogeny of the Fungi (Work In Progress) do not memorize this tree Fungal Structure Fungi grow as either single cells or as mycelia – some species can do both Mycelia provide very large surface area to volume ratios which allow fungi to absorb nutrients from the environment around them . But they are also prone to desiccation, and fungi are most abundant in damp environments
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3/23/11 4 Fungal Structure Hyphae are the thread-like structures that make up the web of the mycelium However, when compressed together, hyphae are also used to make reproductive structures
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