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MASTER STUDY GUIDE - What is Intelligence/Espionage...

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What is Intelligence/Espionage? Espionage = act of gaining intelligence Intelligence = source, info, but NOT all info is intelligence Modern intelligence mostly NOT done via espionage -OPEN SOURCE -unguarded info ie. Internet Components: a) human intelligence (oft referred to as HUMINT); stolen/taken/garnished by human beings; pop cult; least important/successful; human error! b) signals (SIGINT); all means of conveyance c) communication (COMINT); utilisation of tech by people d) electronic (ELINT); exclusively electronic; no humans involved e) ANALYSIS (Nazis, Russians > CSIS, CIA) ; how you interpret the info you get > the info you get “Intelligence Cycle” : INTELLIGENCE IS A CONSUMER GOOD 1) Gathering/collection 2) Distribution/flow/processing: democracies tend to do better at managing/interpreting intelligence than authoritarian regimes b/c system of checks and balances, cross-referencing; better flow of info 3) Analysis : all operating on the various bg’s they have ; experts on things like firsthand/language/history of a certain country 4) Interpretation 5) Production: PRODUCE info and make it CONSUMABLE by non-experts 6) Action/Decision : politicians often make decisions that disregard intelligence info if it isn’ t in their best interests 7) Policy 8) Reaction/Consequence: how do WE react as general public?; our opinions will ultimately manifest in intelligence officers’/politicians’ minds ; remember how intelligence is a CONSUMER GOOD? 9) Sources: how valid are your sources/collection? If any of these stages fails, the entire cycle fails a.k.a. human rights are unbalanced, undermined, compromised
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Key Themes -popular assumptions about other countries are key in intelligence -intelligence uses public ideas/views/ignorance (sometimes fiction leads to fact) - intelligence agencies have to REACT to the public (whether or not it’s ‘right’) - intelligence agencies revolve around people’s fear (public perception) and real or imagined threats in the international environment -have to anticipate fundamental changes - e.g. Canadian public didn’t WANT CSIS to be able to carry guns -IA = mirror of public Technology -must have cutting-edge tech -everyday items (e.g. cell phones, computers, etc.) have origins in U.S. military and intelligence industrial complex Separation of Power - CSIS = not police (can’t arrest you, etc.): they are an INFORMATION GATHERING SERVICE -military, law enforcement and intelligence = separate to benefit democratic society (checks and balances) -ALL subject to government rules and regulations Political Culture -net sum of everything we are as a nation (democratic? Totalitarian? Etc.) -Nazis had NO checks and balances (led to its downfall) -all countries have own distinct political culture -IAs have to take cues from their countries’ political culture National Security Realities and Perceptions Shape IAs -creation of permanent bureaucratic IAs = relatively new, a revolution -UK (created 1909) -Germany (1913)
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MASTER STUDY GUIDE - What is Intelligence/Espionage...

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