Exam #1 Study Guide

Exam #1 Study Guide - Chapter 1 o Goals Of Psychology 1....

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Chapter 1 o Goals Of Psychology 1. Description Persuaded, tells what occurs 2. Explanation Past; specify conditions, tells why an event or behavior occurred 3. Prediction Future; guess, can specify conditions 4. Influence Control; manipulation circumstances, apply or change condition in order to prevent unwanted occurrences o Scientific Method Orderly, systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings Most Objective Method Known For Acquiring Knowledge o Critical Thinking Foundation of the scientific method, is the process of objectively evaluation claims, propositions and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from evidence presented Independent thinking/skepticism Skepticism: question if it is true: Show evidence Do not automatically accept and believe what we have read/heard Suspension of Judgment Do not reach conclusion right away Gathering relevant up to date information on all sides of an issue before taking a position
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Willingness to change Be willing to discard theory Open-mindedness Evaluating new evidence, even though it contradicts preexisting beliefs o Basic Vs. Applied Research Basic Research Research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding o Topics: memory, brain, functioning, motivation, emotional expression 1 st three goals!!! Pure research No concern for future applicability Here and now Applied Research Conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving quality of life o Focuses on methods to increase memory or increase motivation, therapies to treat psychological disorders and decrease stress Influence Applies to goals of psychology undertaken to solve practical problems Last Goal Types Of Descriptive Research Descriptions of behavior and include naturalistic and laboratory observation, case study and survey Naturalistic Observation o Researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, with out attempting to influence or control set
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o More natural, but problems with waiting and observer bias o Used in developmental psychology o Used in behavioral psychology o Used in social psychology o Used in anthropology o Advantages Less contrived Study in normal setting where behavior occurs more naturally and spontaneously than it does under artificial and contrived laboratory o Disadvantages Wait for event to occur No cause and effect conclusions Observer bias Might influence through situation Laboratory Observation o More control but more expensive, less like real world o Descriptive research method in which behavior can/is studied in a laboratory setting, where researchers can exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2011 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.

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Exam #1 Study Guide - Chapter 1 o Goals Of Psychology 1....

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