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Exam #2 Study Guide - Unit3 Learning o ,mental,andsoc

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Exam #2 Study Guide Chapter 5 o Learning Relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability or attitude that is acquired through experience ad cannot be attributed to illness, injury or maturation o Stimulus Any event or object in the environment to which an organism responds o Reflex Involuntary response to particular stimulus Two kinds of reflex Conditioned learned; inborn, automatic, involuntary Unconditioned unlearned o Classical Conditioning Type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another Pavlovian= UCS, UCR, CS, CR o UCS= Food, UCR= Salvation to food, CS= Bell, CR, Salivation to tone of bell Higher order conditioning o Two things to create a response Pavlov’s Dog o Study salivary response in dogs o Made small incision in side of dog’s mouth than attached a tube so saliva flow could be diverted from inside of mouth, through tube into container, where saliva was connected and measure Collect saliva at sight of food, or rattling dishes
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o Salivation is unlearned response/ unconditioned response (UCR) Any stimulus without prior learning will automatically elicit, or bring forth, unconditioned response/unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Neutral stimulus associated with UCS elicits CR Unconditioned Reflex Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) o Food salivation o Loud noise startle o Light in eye contracting pupils o Puff of air in eye eye blink Tone= learned stimulus/ conditioned stimulus (CS) Salvation to tone= learned response/ conditioned response (CR) What type of reactions can be classically conditioned? Emotions and physiological reactions 4 Factors that Influence Classical Conditioning 1. How reliable conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulus o NS must reliably predict occurrence of US E.g tone that is always followed by food will elicit more salivation that one that is followed by food sometimes 2. Number of pairings of CS and UCS o The greater number of pairings, the stronger the CR Only one pairing needed for taste aversion or strong emotional response to traumatic event 3. Intensity of UCS o CS paired with very strong UCS, CR will be stronger and will be acquired more rapidly than if CS were paired with weaker UCS
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Major car crash as opposed to fender bender will cause anxiety when near location 4. Temporal relationship between CS and UCS o Conditioning that takes place fastest if CS occurs shortly before UCS o Higher Order Conditioning Conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimuli are linked together to form a series of signals Getting blood tested is an example Can occur in any situation in which same sequence of stimuli precedes exposure to a stimulus to which you respond reflexively e.g.--> shiver, reflexive response to cold weather so you put layers on o Extinction (Classical Conditioning)
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