Exam #4 Study Guide

Exam #4 Study Guide - Exam #4 Study Guide CHAPTER 8 o...

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Exam #4 Study Guide CHAPTER 8 o Neonatal New born babies 1 month old Behavior is reflexive (automatic) 2 roles of motor development 1. Cephalo-Caudal o “head to tail” o Head develops first, than rest of body o Head/brain is most important part of body 2. Proximo-Distal o “near to far” o Core muscles develop before extremities o Roll over before hold toy Can be sped up w/in limits; can be slowed down but may catch up Only to some degree 4 month old cannot be able to walk to any degree Can be slowed down Restrictions and malnutrition o Senses At birth, 5 senses are functional, but no fully developed Vision 9 inches best range to see: how far mom is (while holding) Nearsightedness, preferences Certain faces, humans as opposed to other faces/ stimulus o Can distinguish color at 2 months o Like contrast b/w black and white
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o Prefer color stimuli Depth Perception Gibson and Walk’s (1960) visual cliff o An apparatus used to measure infants’ ability to perceive depth Don’t want to crawl over deep side Can discriminate depth as soon as crawl 6 week old babies had distinct changes in heart rate when faced deep side of cliff Hearing Best sense at birth Superior to vision Preference for female voices and mom’s Taste Preferences for sweet Can discriminate all the tastes Touch Feel pain and react Smell Preference for certain odors Pleasant over unpleasant o Habituation Paying more attention to a new stimulus than to an old one Learning is demonstrated through process or habituation Infant is bored if looks away or heart rate changes Look at triangle until bored and then show the triangle and then show a circle (new stimulus) and their heart rate changes and pay more attention to the circle
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Babies have demonstrated classical, operant and observational learning (imitation) Learn through observation o Temperament Characteristic way of responding (activity, interest, mood): physical determinants of personality 3 major categories 1. Easy o Relaxed, pleasant moods, adaptable, approached new situations and people o About 40% 2. Difficult o moody, unpleasant moods, reacted negatively to new situations and people, intense in emotional reactions and showed irregularity of bodily reactions o about 10% 3. Slow-to-warm-up o Shy, tended to be withdrawn, slow to adapt, prone to negative emotional states o About 15% 35% doesn’t fit in any category Influenced by genetics Caregiver should be sensitive to temperament o Attachment Emotional bond b/w infants and caregivers (parents) is first form of love Harry Harlow’s research on monkeys Choose cloth b/c of “contact comfort” Also, both mother and peer are necessary Sexual behavior was grossly abnormal= not mating! Human infants need interaction w/ a responsive primary caregiver
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2011 for the course PSY 110 taught by Professor Campbell during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.

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Exam #4 Study Guide - Exam #4 Study Guide CHAPTER 8 o...

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