2 lysosomescarryouttwoprocesses digestionoffood

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Unformatted text preview: ing facilities • Site of production of almost all the cell’s lipids • Site of production of transmembrane proteins, proteins destined for secretion and for other organelles The Golgi Apparatus • Centre for sorting and shipping in the cell • Consists of a set of flattened sacs • There is a receiving and a shipping end • Vesicles are shipped to other organelles or to the cell membrane The Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes • Membranous sac of digestive enzymes found only in animal cells • Main site of intracellular digestion • 1. 2. Lysosomes carry out two processes: Digestion of food Digestion of unwanted organelles Importance of Lysosomes Importance of Lysosomes • Sculpturing functions in early embryonic development • Lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. Tay­ Sachs, resulting from lack of functioning hydrolytic enzyme to defective lysosomal function • There are about 40 diseases arising due Vacuoles • Sacs that bud from the ER, Golgi, or plasma membrane • 1. 2. 3. Carry out cell type dependent functions: Food vacuoles Contractile vacuole Central vacuole­ specific to plant cells Filling vacuole 50 µm Contracting vacuole Contractile Vacuole of Paramecium The Plant Cell Vacuole Central vacuole Cytosol Nucleus Central vacuole Cell wall Chloroplast 5 µm Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Plasma membrane Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi trans Golgi Plasma membrane Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi trans Golgi Plasma membrane Summary • Biologists use microscopes to study cells • Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions enclosed organelles • Prokaryotes lack nuclei and other membrane­ • Nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER • The ER and the Golgi Apparatus are ‘connected’ via vesicles BIO115 The Cell II Jessica Pamment Overview • Organelles that act as power stations: Mitochondria and chloroplasts • The Cytoskeleton: internal scaffolding Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria and Chloroplasts • Change energy from one form to another to provide cellular energy • Contain large amount of internal membrane •...
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