phil paper oct 20

phil paper oct 20 - 1 Brittney Acevedo Professor Valdez...

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1 Brittney Acevedo Professor Valdez Consequences determine the moral rightness or wrongness of an action. Consequences affect how a person will decide whether or not the action is right or wrong but it is not the only thing that affects their decision. Utilitarianism has a similar view that moral rightness is determined by only the consequences of the actions. Utilitarianism is the view that right actions are those that result in the most beneficial balance of good over bad consequences for everyone involved. The principle of utility states that an action is right if it produces as much or more of an increase in happiness of all affected by it than any alternative action, and wrong if it does not. An act is right if the balance of good is greater than the balance of bad. An action is right if it conforms to a rule and if it is followed consistently it would create for everyone involved the most beneficial balance of good over bad. The opposing side to consequentalism is deontology. Deontological moral systems are characterized by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. Deontology states that the most important thing in determining the moral value of an action is the will or motivation and not the outcome. Kant believes that all actions should be grounded in reason. Kant believes that no such law can exist if it is to be about certain consequences. According to Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism, consequences of an action determine whether or not a situation is right or wrong. A good set of consequences shows that the actions were morally right on balance while a bad set of consequences shows that the actions were morally wrong on balance. If the action produces an overall good then the act is just but if a good is not produced then the act is morally wrong. If the action is morally right for one person it is
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2 morally right for everyone else in the same situation because utilitarianism says that a law is universal. Before doing any action the pros and cons should be weighed before deciding if you should perform the action or not. If there are more cons then pros the act has a bad consequence and is morally wrong and should not be performed. If there are more pros then cons then there is a good consequence and the action is morally right and should be done. Actions are right or wrong to the degree that they tend to promote the greatest good or net pleasure to the greatest amount of people. The greatest number of people includes everyone affected by the action and everyone counts as one person because morally everyone is seen as equally important, one person does not count more than any other person. My interests do not count more than any other persons interests just because they are my own they have the same value so in order to determine whether or not the action is right or wrong a person has to look at the situation objectively. If the consequences of the action are unclear or uncertain it is hard to determine whether or not the
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2011 for the course PHIL 8 taught by Professor Sicoli during the Spring '11 term at Long Island U..

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phil paper oct 20 - 1 Brittney Acevedo Professor Valdez...

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