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Unformatted text preview: 1 Cultural Psychology April 7th 2011 Culture and Work-Related Values (Hofstede, 1980) • Data from employees of IBM in 50 countries • 4 work-related values were identified. • Power distance (PD) • Uncertainty avoidance (UA) • Individualism-collectivism (IC) • Masculinity (MA) Power Distance • The degree to which different cultures encourage or maintain power and status differences between interactants. Culture high on PD: rules, mechanisms and rituals that serve to strengthen the status relationships Culture low on PD: those rules and customs are minimized, ignoring the status differences Uncertainty Avoidance • The degree to which different cultures develop ways to deal with the anxiety and stress of uncertain future. Culture high on UA: highly refined rules and rituals that are developed. Culture low on UA: less concerned with rules to deal with anxiety. Individualism-Collectivism • The degree to which a culture fosters individualistic or collectivistic tendencies. Individualistic cultures foster development of autonomous, unique and separate individuals. Collectivistic cultures foster interdependence of individuals within groups. Masculinity • The degree to which the biological sex differences should translate to practical differences in social roles, functions, and positions. Culture high on MA: great degree of sex differences in work-related values Culture low on MA: small degree of sex differences in work-related values 2 Individualism-Collectivism (Hofstede, Triandis) • How one’s identity is defined by personal choices and achievements or by the character of the collective groups to which one is more or less permanently attached • Idiocentric versus allocentric 3 Freed Japanese Hostages Will Foot Bill for Expenses Los Angeles Times Date: Apr 27, 2004 Three Japanese who were held hostage for a week in Iraq were billed about $7,000 each to cover their plane tickets home and other expenses, an of¡cial said Monday. The three returned April 15 amid a storm of criticism that they had behaved recklessly by going to a country that Japan had warned civilians to avoid. The government said aid workers were being billed in the same manner as other Japanese civilians who have been transported home after getting into trouble overseas. They were kidnapped by militants who threatened to burn them alive if Tokyo did not withdraw its troops from Iraq within three days. Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi refused to comply, and the gunmen released the three unharmed a week later after an appeal by Islamic clerics....
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2011 for the course PSY 154 taught by Professor Kim during the Spring '11 term at UCSB.
- Spring '11