01-MitosisMeiosisS11b

01-MitosisMeiosisS11b - How do organisms get from one cell...

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How do organisms get from one cell to billions or trillions??? CELL DIVISION!! How do organisms repair themselves? CELL DIVISION!!
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What happens if cell division is uncontrolled ? Something undesirable! For example, melanoma, a type of skin cancer caused by uncontrolled growth of melanocytes.
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Cell Division Cellular reproduction is a key element of life Requires 3 things: 1) replication of genetic material 2) accurate segregation of genetic material 3) division of cytoplasm Process needs to be controlled Responsive to environmental conditions
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Prokaryotic cell division Prokaryotes have simple form of cell division: binary fission
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Bacteria Divide by Binary Fission Re se ca t
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Fig. 10.1 Origin of replication Replication (bidirectional) Terminus of replication Segregation FtsZ production Septum formation n
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Binary Fission Replicated DNA actively partition to different ends of cell Requires specific sequences near origin Growth of new membrane and a septum partitions of other cell contents Septum forms at site of ring of FtsZ protein FtsZ
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Fig. 11.3 Figure 10.2 Fluorescent micrograph of FtsZ protein
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Eukaryotic chromosomes Sister chromatids : 2 copies of the DNA within the replicated chromosome Homologue : same chromosome, different parent Centromere : visible constriction Short repeated DNA sequences Kinetochore: Connect chromosomes to microtubules during mitosis Cohesin : complex of proteins holding sister chromatids together
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Eukaryotic chromosomes Figure 10.7
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Problems for Eukaryotic Cells Chromosome compaction
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Eukaryotic DNA Compaction Compaction of strands of DNA:
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Nucleosome compaction Figure 10.5
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Solenoid & chromosome 1.
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