psc101midterm1studyguide

psc101midterm1studyguide - Glialcells ,formmyelin,

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PSC 101 Midterm 1 Study Guide - Glial cells “Glue” to hold nerves together  Effects on neural transmission Non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and  protection for the brain’s neurons - Action potentials and refractory periods : Nerve impulses are brief but large changes in membrane potential;  Action potentials carry information to target cells; vary in frequency Neuronal activity is based on movements of ions into and out of neurons Action potentials are caused by an exchange of ions across the neuron membrane.  Stimulus causes sodium channels to open. Because there are many sodium ions on the  outside, and the inside of the neuron is negative relatives to the outside, sodium ions rush  into the neuron. K is pumped in and neuron needs energy to pump ions (peak is action  potential) Ap’s have  refractory period  (1m sec) “all or none” in nature: during this period, all the  K (potassium) is out of the cell, so there is hyperpolerization (below threshold) Threshold : during refractory period, neuron is hyperpolarized 
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        - Neurotoxins Toxin that acts on nerve cells (neurons) usually by interacting with membrane proteins  such as ion channels - EPSP and IPSP  Excitory postsynaptic potential : increase likelihood of a post synaptic action potential.  They usually result from sodium ions (NA+) entering the cell, making the inside more  positive; produces a small local depolarization, pushing the cell closer to threshold Inhibitory postsynaptic potential : decrease likelihood of a post synaptic action  potential. They usually result from chloride ions (Cl-) entering the cell, making the  inside more negative Produces a small hyperpolierization, pushing the cell further away from the threshold
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                             - Chemical synapses Here, neurotransmitters can influence the resting potential of other neurons An action potential causes Ca2+ channels to open in the axon terminal & allow Ca2+ in  the cell Ca2+ causes synaptic vesicles to fuse with the pre-synaptic membrane and release  neurotransmitter into the cleft - Model of SSRI effects on behavior: SSRI blocks serotonin reuptake Reuptake: transmitter is taken up into the presynaptic cell Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat depression - Endogenous and exogenous ligands Endogenous ligands: neurotransmitters and hormones Exogenous ligands: deugs and toxins from outside the body - Electrical synapses and reflex arc 
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Electrical synapses:
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