Trait_&_Situation_F_10.2

Trait_&_Situation_F_10.2 - Communicating Leadership...

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Unformatted text preview: Communicating Leadership STOC 1112 Trait & Situational Approach Dr. Tracey Weiss 3 Primary Schools of Thought • Traits – Ralph Stogdill • Situational – Path-Goal Theory – Hersey & Blanchard • Functional • Transformational Overview of Traits Theory • Great Person Theories • Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective • What Traits Differentiate Leaders From non leaders? • How Does the Trait Approach Work? “The President of the United States” The Traits Approach to Leadership • In the early part of the 20th century, one of the first systematic attempts to study leadership. • Since the late 1940s, the popularity of the traits approach has steadily declined. • Present-day researchers no longer accepted the notion of born leader. Traits Theory • • • • Dominated the literature until 1950 “Great Man” theory Leaders are born not made Certain traits such as intelligence, honesty, influence skills are important to leadership • Ralph Stogdill was the first to identify that both personal traits and situational factors influenced leadership strength “God Bless America” The Traits Approach to Leadership • The leader’s characteristics are indeed a part of leadership. • Traits that leaders possess must be relevant to situations the leader is functioning. Stogdill (1948, 1974) Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective Early 1900s 1930-50s 1970’s - Early 90s Today Great Man Theories •Research focused on individual characteristics that universally differentiated leaders from nonleaders Innate Qualities Traits Interacting With Situational Demands on Leaders • Landmark Stogdill (1948) Revival of Critical Role of Traits in Leader Effectiveness • Stogdill (1974) Emotional Intelligence • Teamwork • Self-Confidence • Planning •& Implementation • Integrity • Communicating Effectively study - analyzed and synthesized 124 trait studies - Leadership reconceptualized as a relationship between people in a social situation • Mann (1959) reviewed 1,400 findings of personality and leadership in small groups - Less emphasis on situations - Suggested personality traits could be used to discriminate leaders from nonleaders Situations - Analyzed 163 new studies with 1948 study findings - Validated original study - 10 characteristics positively identified with leadership Competencies • Lord, DeVader, & Alliger (1986) meta-analysis - Personality traits can be used to differentiate leaders/nonleaders • Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991) - 6 traits make up the “Right Stuff” for leaders Personality / Behaviors 5-Factor Personality Model Leadership Big Five Personality Factors & Summary of the Trait Approach Leader Personality Assessments • Focuses exclusively on leader – What traits leaders exhibit – Who has these traits • Organizations use personality assessments to find “Right” people – Assumption - will increase organizational effectiveness – Specify characteristics/traits for specific positions • Personality assessment measures for “fit” • Instruments: LTQ, Myers Briggs Strengths • Intuitively appealing – Perception that leaders are different in that they possess special traits – People “need” to view leaders as gifted • Highlights leadership component in the leadership process – Deeper level understanding of how leader/personality related to leadership process • Credibility due to a century of research support • Provides benchmarks for what to look for in a leader Criticisms • Fails to delimit a definitive list of leadership traits – Endless lists have emerged • List of most important leadership traits is highly subjective – Much subjective experience & observations serve as basis for identified leadership traits • Doesn’t take into account situational effects – Leaders in one situation may not be leaders in another situation • Research fails to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes Application • Provides direction as to which traits are good to have if one aspires to a leadership position • Can test for “personality traits through interviews and questionnaires • Can self-assess what you need to develop to strengthen your leadership style against a prescribed model Leadership Leadership Traits Traits Teamwork Self-Confidence Planning & Implementation Integrity Communicating Effectively Situational Leadership Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory High Pa ti r pa ci g in t Se ll in g le g De g t in a Te l l i ng Task Behavior Able and Able willing willing Able and Able unwilling unwilling Unable and Unable willing willing Unable and Unable unwilling unwilling High High Follower Readiness Low “Getting to the Hospital” The Situational Approach • Path-Goal Theory based ob – Expectancy theory • Followers are motivated to be productive when they believe they will be successful • Task completion will provide a path a valuable goal. – Leaders play an important role in influencing follower perceptions of task paths and goal desirability. Path-Goal Theory • Explains the link between leadership behavior and the satisfaction and performance of their subordinates. eaders play an important role in influencing follower perceptions of task paths and goal desirability. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2011 for the course STOC 1102 taught by Professor Weiss during the Fall '10 term at Temple.

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Trait_&_Situation_F_10.2 - Communicating Leadership...

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