5 Compost! - What are the major urban soil issues? -The...

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Unformatted text preview: What are the major urban soil issues? -The lack of urban soil – more concrete / aspha - Pollution – - Lack of nutrients – infertile -Compacted -Dry - What are the major urban soil issues? 1.SOIL COMPACTION - REDUCED amounts of AIR and WATER 1.NUTRIENT LOSS / LEACHING 2.LACK OF macro AND micro FAUNA 3.CONTAMINATION – pb Yields a “DISTURBED” ECOSYSTEM What’s wrong with this picture? What’s wrong with this picture? 1) Compacted soil cuts off water and oxygen to tree roots. 2) Dying leaves on mature trees and dying branches on young trees may indicate compaction injury. 3) Pedestrian and other traffic patterns should be designed to help prevent soil compaction. 4) Public cooperation and respect for trees are also needed. Soil Aeration Structural Soil --- http://vimeo.com/9523362 Revegetating Disturbed Urban Soils with the help of... drum roll please.. Compost! The Need for Compost The In • In 2010, the US generated over 245,100,000 pounds of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) (EPA) Solid Two-thirds • Two-thirds of the MSW generated was organic; 34% was paper was Disturbed sites Compost in Common urban practices: practices: • • • Mulch Plant media Topdressing for lawns Topdressing Disturbed Soils that can benefit from Compost: benefit • • • • • • High clay content Acidic (low pH) Acidic Low nutrient content Low organic matter High Compaction High Low moisture The Benefits of Compost The Biom ass Turf Quality Moisture I nfiltration Nutrie nts Bulk de nsity Microorganism s Other considerations Other • • • Economics Environmental impact “Organic” movement Current Research: Current The Summit Objectives Objectives There • There is a lack of research as to how compost can benefit “disturbed urban settings” urban Effects • Effects of compost on turfgrass establishment Effects • Effects of compost on soil physical and chemical properties and Methods and Materials Methods The • The Summit, Lynchburg, VA Lynchburg, Cullen • Cullen Loam • Slope 3-5% Established • Established March 23, 2009 March Soil test analysis Soil Parameter pH CEC P K Ca Mg N P K Result 7.1 7.3 meq/100 g soil 6 lbs/A (L) 159 lbs/A (M+) 2441 lbs/A (VH) 240 lbs/A (VH) FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS 40 lbs/A 60 lbs/A 120 lbs/A Treatments Treatments • • • • • 1= Control- fertilizer and seed 2= 1” compost broadcasted and seed 3= 1” compost incorporated and seed 4= 2” compost incorporated and seed 5= a) 0.25” compost broadcasted; 5= fertilizer and seed fertilizer b) Straw blanket; fertilizer and seed Incorporating Compost Incorporating 1 C post om 2 Ae rovate 3 S e roll e d, 3/28/2009 Compost composition Compost Parameter ¼ in screen size moisture Soluble salts (EC) pH Total N P K Ca Mg Maturity Result 94% 43% 2.92 mmhos/cm 7.9 0.7% 0.5% 0.8% 3.4% 0.4% Very Mature (low CO2, NH3) Treatments for Evaluating Treatments Revegetation 1” com broadcaste post d 0.25” com broadcaste post d S traw Mat 1” com incorporate post d Treatment Differences Treatment e r stablishm nt e • Four we ks afte e s • 2.48 inche of rainfall C ontrol S traw m at 0.25” com broadcast post Treatment Effects Treatment Compost versus Control C post om I ncorporate d C ontrolFe rtilize r C post om Broadcaste d Treatment effect on stand Treatment The • The greatest % of ground cover after four weeks was recorded for the 1” compost incorporated. compost The • The least amount of coverage was recorded for the control. recorded The • The % coverage was greater for compost incorporated than surface applied applications. applied Conclusions Conclusions Compost • Compost applications increased percent ground cover percent Incorporated • Incorporated compost applications have a more uniform ground cover have Straw • Straw mats and 0.25” broadcast compost are more effective than fertilizer alone for establishing vegetation as a seed cover vegetation Future work Future • • • • • Effects on biomass? Effects on turf quality? Effects on species diversity? Effects on tissue analysis? Effects on soil chemical and/or Effects physical properties? physical Issues of Contamination - Metals - Petroleum Based Chemicals -Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) LEAD - pB ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2011 for the course LANDSCAPE 0845 taught by Professor Welborne during the Fall '10 term at Temple.

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