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ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY - ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY HISTORY...

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ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: HISTORY AND OVERVIEW What? (theory) What is the place of humans in nature? What is the relationship between nature and culture? Cultural ecology focus - How does the subsistence economy influence other aspects of culture through the interplay of the human population and the ecosystems in their habitat? Culture - alternative system of adapting humans to each other, their ecosystems, and the supernatural, which is socially learned, patterned, and shared by an interacting group of people. Schools of thought to 1960s 1. thesis - environmental determinism (anthropogeography) 2. antithesis - environmental possibilism (Franz Boas) 3. synthesis - cultural ecology (Julian Steward) Culture & environment - isolated, pristine, homogeneous, static (until 1990s) Natural environment - geographical (landscape) to ecological (ecosystem) perspective by 1960s Other factors - population, nutrition, health, hazards, human environmental impact, politics When? (historic period and trends) 1. Roots - ancient, perennial, and universal questions 2. Formative - 1930-1950s (Steward)
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