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Lesson6HumanEvolution - Review Human Taxonomy Kingdom...

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10/12/09 1 • Animalia • Chordata • Mammalia • Primata • Hominidae • Homo • Sapiens Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Acherontia atropos Great white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) Guinea pig Cavia porcellus Review: Human Taxonomy Sumatran orangutan Pongo abelii • Brain? • Vision? • Face? • Limbs? • Reproduction? • Sociality? REVIEW: What do we know about the Primate… Sumatran orangutan Pongo abelii anubis baboon Papio anubis western tarsier Tarsius bancanus western gorilla Gorilla gorilla The Family: Hominids http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2007/07/tet_zoo_picture_of_the_day_22.php Bipedalism • Evolved looong before our big brains and flat faces • 6-7 mya • Adapted to arboreal and terrestrial settings (flexible) 1. Freed up arms for carrying 2. elevated head (better sighting) 3. helped cool the body 4. efficient energy use for long periods of walking Adaptive how? Geologic/ Environmental Changes 55 mya oldest primate finds 4o mya monkeys in Old world 23 mya apes in Old world Continental drift Hominid Time Line Hominids?
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10/12/09 2 Sahelanthropus tchadensis (“ Toumai”) 6-7mya, South Africa brain 320-380cc foramen magnum positioned towards the back of the skull no lower bones found not genus homo, but may be precursor (“missing link”) Orrorin tugenensis (“millennium man”) 6myo, Kenya possible “missing link” possible hominid maybe bipedal (femur) one of the oldest proposed human ancestors to date Approx. 1.2 metres tall lived in well-forested habitat smaller molars, thicker enamel than australopiths Ardipithecus ramidus (“ground-man, root”) • 4.4-4.5mya • Ethiopia Dentition is ape-like Arms both ape-like and human-like Size of modern chimpanzees Some consider it the oldest known hominid Not enough bones to determine bipedalism (partial child’s lower jaw, teeth, adult jawbone, skull, arms bones)
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