US History 1941-45 - Relations w/ Japan - pacific theatre...

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Relations w/ Japan - pacific theatre started in 1937 - Japan invades China - has string of victories - N. China - coastal areas - wanted to control west pacific - events in Europe affect Japan - August 1939, Germany & USSR sign non-aggression pact - w/o German threat, USSR could focus on Japan - Germany defeats France, Belgium, & Holland - makes pacific colonies vulnerable - 1940-41, Japan shifts focus south - US is only concern - tensions were high - Japan wasn’t happy about Washington Naval Conference - Summer 1940, Japanese government reorganizes - Hideki Tojo named minister of war - professional soldier - disciplinarian, “the razor” - head of secret police in Manchuria - leading militarist - 1940, US trade agreement expires - US doesn’t renew - trade on day to day basis - Japan was dependent on US goods - Japan thinks US will only negotiate, not fight - Summer 1941, Japan takes French Indochina (Vietnam) - US freezes Japanese assets in US - Douglas MacArthur sent to Philippines - commands US/Philippino troups - August 1941, US tells Japan aggression must stop - end aggression & imperial ambitions or go to war w/ US - October 1941, gov’t reorganized again - Tojo becomes premier - runs day to day gov’t - Japan wanted US to unfreeze assets - wanted US to help take E. Indies - split the land after taking -US tells Japan to get out of China
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Both sides plan for war - Admiral Isoruku Yamato plans campaign for Japan - spoke English - respected naval officer - knew America - impressed by US industrial capacity - only person to say attacking US wouldn’t work - death threats - officers refused to ride w/ him - only obstacle was US Pacific fleet - spring 1940, fleet moves from CA to Hawaii - bother Japan - 3 carriers, 8 battleships - commanded by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel (Navy) - General Walter C. Short commanded Hawaii Army Dept. - attack on Pearl Harbor - strike force included 6 carriers - 450 planes - 350 to be used against at Pearl Harbor - November 24, 1944, strike forces leaves - strict radio silence - fly eastward out of scouts range - went south about 250 miles from Pearl Harbor - 1 hour flight - panned attack for December 7 - US didn’t anticipate attack - December 7, some warnings never made in to high commanders - 7a.m., US destroyer detects Japanese midget sub trying to enter harbor - destroyed w/ depth charges - after 7 a.m., US radar detects huge fleet of planes - not taken seriously - B-17’s were supposed to come in - just before 8a.m., planes attack - break radio silence - battleships couldn’t be moved - planes were wing tip to wing tip - 2 nd wave ended at 10a.m. - lots of damage - 8 battleships damged or sunk - almost 200 planes destroyed - 100 damaged - >2400 Americans killed - Japan lost 29 planes
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- not a complete success for Japan - missed the oil supply - missed all the carriers - not in Hawaii - Kimmel & Short caught most of the blame - relieved and retired - December 8, FDR declares war on Japan - 1 descenting vote in House - December 11, Germany declares war on US - Got America into war in Europe European Theatre
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US History 1941-45 - Relations w/ Japan - pacific theatre...

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