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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Studying the Person What Do We Know When We Know a Person? Sketching an Outline: Dispositional Traits Personality traits are those general, internal and comparative dispositions that we attribute to people in our initial efforts to sort individuals into meaningful behavioural categories and to account for consistencies we perceive or expect in behaviour from one situation to the next and over time Personality psychologists give questionnaires to help identify personality traits Big 5: OCEAN (as referred to in class) Filling in the Details: Characteristic Adaptations Move beyond stable trait attributions to consider aspects of personality that are contextualized in time, place and/or role Characteristic adaptations: contextualized facets of psychological individuality that speak to motivational, cognitive, and developmental concerns in personality Theories of motivation- what people fundamentally want/desire in life Theories of cognition and personality- underscore role of cognitive factors in human individuality Theories of development- focus on evolution of the self and its relationships with others from birth to old age As you move from dispositional traits to characteristic adaptation in the study of persons, you move from stable to dynamic Constructing a Story: Integrative Life Narratives Identity is the problem of unity and purpose in life, normally encountered in transition from adolescence to young adulthood Challenge of modern identity is to come up with a way of understanding and talking about the self such that a) despite the many different parts of me I am whole and coherent, and b) despite the many changes that attend the passage of time, the self of my past led up to or set the stage for the self of the present, which in turn will lead up to or set the stage to the self of the future Integration of self into identity is accomplished through construction and revision of a life story Life story- internalized and evolving narrative of the self that integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present and anticipated future in order to provide a life with a sense of unity and purpose As identity changes, so does the story Postmodern approaches to life stories look to the confusing swirl of narrative in culture and society; people are storytellers who make themselves anew with each new conversation they have, each new story they tell and perform; no story really ever takes hold though because constantly changing Science and the Person Science proceeds according to three steps: 1) unsystematic observation, 2) building of theories and 3) evaluating propositions Step 1: Unsystematic Observation (pg. 13) Explore the phenomenon with few expectations of what we will see Active attempt to discern and then describe organization, pattern, design or structure in a phenomenon that initially seems to be unorganized and without design Creative observer interacts in a highly subjective way...
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- Spring '11
- Walden Two