CHM142 experiment3 - SchoolofChEChm RottenCarbonoids...

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Romero, Von Joby M. Experiment No. 3:  SIMPLE AND STEAM DISTILLATION ABSTRACT Purification of organic compounds was the core objective of this experiment. To  do so, distillation is used. The experiment is divided into two parts where different  distillation processes were done. The set-up was assembled to start the  experiment.  In simple distillation, 15 mL of impure carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was purified  through simple distillation. The sample was orange in color, but as distillation  takes place, it turned out to be colorless. When we had collected 13 mL distillate,  the boiling point of the compound determined is 109  0 C. In this type, we  recovered 87% of the sample. On the other hand, steam distillation is used for the purification of p- dichlorobenzene, the main component of commercially known product Albatros™  for comfort room fragrance. Water steam is supplied to the sample in order to  boil. The orange sample is noticed to be immiscible with water. Crystals formed  out clogging the condenser is slowly heated using Bunsen burner. The recovered  Page 1 School of ChE-Chm Rotten Carbonoids Chm142L   B11 Group No. 11
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substance, directly subjected to cold water bath, is in the form of white crystals.  About 87% of the sample was recovered. Recovered substance percentage after distillation was high. Thus, distillation is  an effective way of purifying organic compounds depending on the type of  organic compounds to be purified. I. INTRODUCTION Often,   liquid   mixtures   of   organic  compounds   are   necessary   to   be  separated.   Example   of   this   is  separation   of crude   oil  into   more  fractions   for   specific   uses   such  as transport , power   generation  and  heating.  One common method can  be used is through distillation. Distillation is a unit operation used to  separate   components   of   a   liquid  mixture based in their differences in  volatility. This process is said to be  an   equilibrium   stage   concept.   The  separating agent for this method is  heat   while   its   mechanism   is  application or addition of heat. In this  experiment,   we   focused   on   two  common   method   of   distillation  namely   the   simple   and   steam  distillation.  Substances regardless of its phase  are typified to have vapor pressure,  as its physical property. The vapor  pressure is the pressure exerted by  the   substance   against   the   external  pressure   also   known   as   the  atmospheric   pressure.  Vapor  pressure is also a measure of the  tendency of a condensed substance  to   escape   the   condensed   phase.  Thus, the  greater   the   vapor   pressure,   the 
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2011 for the course CHM 142 taught by Professor Ng during the Spring '11 term at Mapúa Institute of Technology.

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CHM142 experiment3 - SchoolofChEChm RottenCarbonoids...

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