CHM143L Experiment 6 - Mapua Institute of Technology...

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Mapua Institute of Technology Organic Chemistry Laboratory 2 Final Report Amines Von Joby M. Romero, Kristine S. Salvador School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines Experiment No. 6, Submitted on November 24, 2010 at N402 ABSTRACT This experiment centers its study on the functional group, amine. On the first part, the physical properties such solubility and basicity of one set of amines are studied. The compounds used are methyl amine, ethyl amine, benzyl amine and aniline. Apart from this, another sets of compounds were tested including ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, aniline, N-butylaniline, and N,N-dimethylaniline. Their different reactivity towards the three tests: acetyl chloride test, hinsberg test, and nitrous acid test is the main way of identifying their classification encompassing their own characteristic as either an aliphatic or aromatic amine. It turned out that methyl amine, ethyl amine and benzyl amine are soluble in water while aniline is not. It is also found out that ethanolamine and aniline are primary, diethanolamine and N-butylaniline are secondary while triethanolamine and N,N- dimethylaniline are tertiary amine. Keyword: amine, solubility, basicity, classification tests, nucleophilic substitution 1 INTRODUCTION Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by alkyl group. Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. Structurally amines resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents such as alkyl and aryl groups. Amines can be categorized on the basis of the number of alkyl or aryl groups substituted for the hydrogen or in other words, on the degree of substitution at the nitrogen atom of ammonia in the nitrogen. Generally, primary amines arise when one of the three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an organic substituent. Secondary amines have two organic substituents bond to nitrogen together with one hydrogen. In tertiary amines all the three hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents. Similarly, an organic compound with multiple amino groups is called a diamine, triamine, tetraamine and so forth. Other than amines contain a straight chain alkyl group, there are also others which has an aromatic ring in it. For amines containing these rings, they have suffixes ending in –aniline. Remmber that aniline is the simplest aromatic compound which has an amine group. The bonding in amines is similar to the bonding in ammonia. The nitrogen atom is sp 3 -hybridized, with the three substituents occupying three corners of a regular tetrahedron and the lone pair of electrons occupying the fourth corner. As expected, the C-N-C bond angles are very close to the 109 0 tetrahedral value. Like alcohols, amines are highly polar, and those with fewer
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CHM143L Experiment 6 - Mapua Institute of Technology...

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