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Unformatted text preview: W B W 1 ABSTRACT This experiment circles around with the Newton’s second condition of equilibrium, the equilibrium in rotational motion. It describes by the net torque acting on a body which is zero. The ability of the body to rotate in a certain direction is varied according on how much torque is applied. To prove that, a beam that is subjected to two forces is balanced by adjusting the perpendicular distances. When the applied force is weight, modification in masses added is also done. Once equilibrium is achieved, or when the beam is not moving at a horizontal position, we can calculate for the unknown forces applied through the utilization of this principle. On our result, we had computed around 0.5 – 1.0% error in the determination of the mass of the pans, while on the force applied on the second part, we got an error of round 2%. Finally, the error accumulated in the determination of the weight of the beam is about 0.5%. Overall, by performing the experiment we can prove the Newton’s second condition of equilibrium and appreciate the application of rotational equilibrium in real life. I N TRODUCT ION Did you see a door where knob is at the center? Why do you think the door knob is usually placed farther from the hinge? For this experiment, the reason for that is to be discussed. I t will be shown here how force and distance from the axis of rotation is related to the total torque of the system. Generally, torque (or often called a moment) is directly proportional with the force applied on a particle and it is also dependent on the perpendicular distance of the applied force to the axis of rotation. In physics, it can informally be thought of as "rotational force" or "angular force" which causes a change in rotational motion. This force is defined by linear force multiplied by a radius. The SI unit for torque is the Newton meter (N m). I t is also an angular analogue of force. Just as force acts to change the magnitude and/or direction of an object’s linear velocity, torque acts to change the magnitude and/or direction of an object’s angular velocity. The equation: = τ Ia Equation 1 describes the effect of a torque on an object’s angular kinematic variables. I t tells you what a torque does, but not where it comes from. A torque arises whenever a force acts upon a rigid body that is free to rotate about some axis. If the applied force is F and the displacement vector from the axis of rotation to the point where the force is applied is r , then the magnitude of the torque is equal to = τ Fx r Equation 2 So long as the total net force on an object is zero, the velocity of its center of mass will not change. However, it is possible for an object to have zero net force acting on it, but to nevertheless have non-zero torque acting on it. Figure 2 shows one such possible scenario. The velocity of the center of mass of the object in figure 2, acted upon by two equal and opposite forces, will remain constant, but since the torque is non-zero, it...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2011 for the course PHY 11L taught by Professor Agguire during the Spring '11 term at Mapúa Institute of Technology.
- Spring '11