13_above_beyond - Above and Beyond Programming ENCMP 100 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Above and Beyond Programming ENCMP 100 2 2011 by ECE, UofA Above and Beyond Overview Computer revolution What is inside a computer Onion model of computing systems Different programming languages Software development Software errors ENCMP 100 3 2011 by ECE, UofA Computer Revolution: 1940s the present The development of the programmable digital electronic computer during World War II started profound changes that now affect all aspects of technology and society. The changes caused by computers and computing are an on-going Computer Revolution , which began in earnest in the late 1950s and 1960s. The impact of the Computer Revolution is comparable to that of the Industrial Revolution (late-1700s to the early 1900s in Western Europe and North America; on-going in many parts of the world today). Such technological revolutions cause massive changes, which have both positive and negative effects. Above and Beyond ENCMP 100 4 2011 by ECE, UofA 1940s: the First Electronic Computers Colossus Mark 2 U.K., 1944 Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) U.S.A., 1947 Programmable code-breaking computer Used in military calculations (hydrogen bomb design, artillery tables, etc.). Above and Beyond ENCMP 100 5 2011 by ECE, UofA 1947: the Solid-State Transistor Invented at Bell Labs in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain. All three were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. Invented at Texas Instr- uments in 1958 by Jack S. Kilby. Kilby won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 (along with another IC pioneer, Robert Noyce). 1958: the Integrated Circuit (IC) Above and Beyond ENCMP 100 6 2011 by ECE, UofA Moore's Law for ICs In 1965 Dr. Gordon Moore (later a co-founder of Intel Corp.) noted that the number of transistors that could be economically manufactured on a single integrated circuit (IC) was roughly doubling every 12 months (after 1970, slowing down to every 18 months). 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 8086 80286 i386 i486 Pentium Pentium Pro K 1 Billion 1 Billion Transistors Transistors Pentium II Pentium III Year Transistors / microprocessor 2015 Above and Beyond ENCMP 100 7 2011 by ECE, UofA 2010: Intel Core i7-980X (Extreme Edition) 3.33-GHz clock, dissipating 130 watts Above and Beyond ENCMP 100 8 2011 by ECE, UofA Revolutionary aspects of Computers (1) Speed : rate of calculation has been increased from tens of operations/second to billions of operations/second Compactness and reliability : computers have shrunk in physical size and increased greatly in reliability as the implementation technology has evolved: (19 th cent.) mechanical cogs, shafts, punched cards (early 20 th cent.) electro-mechanical relays (1920s to 1960s) electron tubes, cathode ray tube displays (1950s to early 1970s) discrete wires, transistors, resistors,...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2011 for the course ENCMP 100 taught by Professor Cockburn during the Spring '11 term at University of Alberta.

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13_above_beyond - Above and Beyond Programming ENCMP 100 2...

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