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ALCOHOLS and Ethers - Alcohols and ethers E.V Blackburn...

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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Alcohols and ethers
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Structure R-OH alcohol R = alkyl group (substituted or unsubstituted) R C H H OH 1 o R C R' H OH 2 o R C R' R" OH 3 o
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Sterols - the steroid ring system HO cholesterol A B C D 1 3 5 7 9 11 12 14 16
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Physical properties of alcohols These differences are due to the OH group which renders a certain polarity to the molecule. The result is an important intermolecular attraction: Alcohols are noticeably less volatile; their melting points are greater and they are more water soluble than the corresponding hydrocarbons having similar molecular weights. O H R O H R O H R δ - δ - δ + δ + δ - the hydrogen bond ~ 21 - 25 kJ/mol
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 O H R O H H O R H δ - δ + δ - δ - δ + δ + Low molecular weight alcohols are water soluble: Solubility of alcohols
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Spectroscopic properties IR: Unassociated alcohols show a fairly sharp absorption near 3600 cm -1 due to O-H stretching. Associated alcohols (hydrogen bonded) show a broad absorption in the 3300 - 3400 cm -1 range.
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© E.V. Blackburn, 2005 Fermentation Fermentation of sugar by yeast gives C 2 H 5 OH.
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