7.3.THE SHADOW OF EMPIRE Ch 1 for class

7.3.THE SHADOW OF EMPIRE Ch 1 for class - THE SHADOW OF...

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THE SHADOW OF EMPIRE: CHRISTIAN MISSIONS, COLONIAL POLICY, AND DEMOCRACY IN POSTCOLONIAL SOCIETIES by Robert D. Woodberry A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the Department of Sociology. Chapel Hill 2004 Approved by ____________________________________ Co-Advisor: Professor Kenneth A. Bollen ____________________________________ Co-Advisor: Professor Christian S. Smith ____________________________________ Reader: Professor Barbara Entwisle ____________________________________ Reader: Professor Guang Guo ____________________________________ Reader: Assistant Professor Ted Mouw
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ABSTRACT ROBERT D. WOODBERRY: The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and Democracy in Postcolonial Societies. (under the direction of Kenneth A. Bollen and Christian S. Smith) Cross-national empirical research consistently suggests that, on average, former British colonies are both more democratic and have more stable democratic transitions. I argue that former British colonies are distinct not because Great Britain was a democracy – so were France and Belgium during the late 19 th and early 20 th century. Nor were the British more altruistic. However, British colonial elites were more divided and thus more constrained. In particular, religious groups were more independent from state control in British colonies than in historically-Catholic colonies (i.e., colonies of France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy). Initially the British restricted missions in their colonies, but Evangelical Protestants forced the British to allow religious liberty in 1813. Protestants were not able to win religious liberty in most other European colonizers during the entire period of colonization. Protestant missionaries were central to expanding formal education in the colonies because they wanted people to read the Bible in their own language. Governments wanted a small educated elite that they could control. Other religious groups invested in mass vernacular education primarily when competing with Protestants. Missionaries also constrained colonial abuses when they were independent from state control (i.e., chose their own leaders and raised their own funds). If colonial exploitation was ii
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extreme, it angered indigenous people against the West and made mission work difficult. Thus missionaries had incentive to fight abuses. Other colonial elites had no incentive to expose their abuses, and indigenous people had little power in the colonizing state. This left missionaries in a unique bridging position. Non-state missionaries also fostered institutions outside state control, institutions that nationalist leaders later used to challenge British colonization and birth political parties. Statistical analysis confirms the centrality of missions in expanding education and
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7.3.THE SHADOW OF EMPIRE Ch 1 for class - THE SHADOW OF...

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