PAM 4380 february 9 - Outline: 2/9/2011 2.1 Normative...

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Outline: 2/9/2011 2.1 Normative economics and public health ethics Health Disparities Normative economics perspective Public health perspective Deaton: “Policy Implications of the Gradient of Health and Wealth” 2.2 Empirical methods in economics and public health (start on Friday, next week) Reminder: Homework #1 due 2/11/2011
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Health disparities: some facts Gradient: as income , health Mortality: Men whose 1980 income in bottom 5% of income distribution had 25% lower life expectancy than those in top 5% of income distribution Morbidity: similar relationships Health disparities: as SES , health SES includes income, schooling, social class Race/ethnicity very important in US Figure that follow reproduced from Singh & Siahbpush, Int. J. of Epidemiology (2006)
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Normative economics: Gov’t interventions to ↑ econ efficiency Identify market failures Conduct cost-benefit analysis: Is intervention a potential Pareto improvement? Re-distribute income to ↑ equity “Equity” usually refers to “fairness,” & “fairness” usually refers to reducing inequalities in outcomes (Distributive justice: broader philosophical concerns) (Procedural justice: distribution of income is just if it results from just processes)
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Household Income Inequality: Gini Series, 1979- 2004 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.41 0.43 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 PUB Consistent Top Code PUB Census INT Consistent Censoring INT Census Source: Consistent top-coded and Unadjusted Gini values based on the public-use and internal CPS data calculated by Richard Burkhauser, Shuaizhang Feng, and Stephen Jenkins.
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The Income Distribution in the United States Population in 1979, 1989, and 2000 0 0.000005 0.00001 0.000015 0.00002 0.000025 0.00003 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 Income Frequency Density 1979 1989 2000 Individual Equivalent Pre-tax Post-Transfer Household Income, 2000 Dollars Poverty Threshold=$8,794
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Normative economics and health disparities Conceptual focus on utility (happiness) inequality Usually less focus or concern about inequalities Are health disparities a special cause for concern?
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PAM 4380 february 9 - Outline: 2/9/2011 2.1 Normative...

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