01%20European%20Foundations%20of%20the%20American%20Parks%20Movement

01%20European%20Foundations%20of%20the%20American%20Parks%20Movement

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European Foundations of the American Parks Movement America
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The 18 th Century English Landscape Garden Transition from the Baroque to the Beautiful, Sublime, and Picturesque
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Hampton Court near London – 1660-1699 Christopher Wren (one of several architects) Andre Mollet (French garden designer) also George London & Henry Wise Henry Wise 1653-1738 John Vanbrugh 1664-1626 George London c. 1640-1714 Christopher Wren 1632-1723 English Baroque 1666-1713 Architects Garden Designers
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Charles Bridgeman 1690-1738 bridge between the Baroque and the Landscape Garden th -century English Landscape Garden William Kent 1684-1740 Architect, painter & set designer “Nature abhors a straight line” “*William Kent+ leapt the fence and saw that all nature was a garden” A naturalistic, informal style utilized design techniques that pulled one through the landscape, including conceal/reveal, surprise, and borrowed landscape Use of freeform lakes and meadows and groups of trees to create space Incorporation of literary allusions and mythological content to create powerful scenes that would unfold as a series of paintings as one progressed through the landscape Utilization of architectural and sculptural features (including Classically-themed temples, gothic churches and cottages, Egyptian obelisks, Palladian pavilions, and artificial ruins)
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Claude Lorraine 1600-1682 Artistic Influence on the 18 th -century English Landscape Garden Nicolas Poussin 1594-1665 Salvator Rosa 1615-1673
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Stowe Buckinghamshire – 1711-1735 (Charles Bridgeman, with Vanbrugh & Wise), 1734-1748 (William Kent), 1741-1749 (Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown)
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Stowe, England Arcadia : a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature, derived from the Greek province of the same name – associated with bountiful nature, harmony, and Classical utopian ideals
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Lorrain’s Coast View of Delos with Aenneas Stourhead Wiltshire – 1735-65 Henry Hoare II, owner & designer
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Late 18 th c. Literary Influence Edmund Burke 1729-1797
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01%20European%20Foundations%20of%20the%20American%20Parks%20Movement

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