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01 European Foundations of the American Parks Movement 1 European Foundations of the American Parks Movement The 18 th Century English Landscape Garden Transition from the Baroque to the Beautiful, Sublime, and Picturesque Hampton Court near London – 1660 1699 Christopher Wren (one of several architects) Andre Mollet (French garden designer) also George London & Henry Wise Henry Wise 1653 1738 John Vanbrugh 1664 1626 George London c. 1640 1714 Christopher Wren 1632 1723 English Baroque 1666 1713 Architects Garden Designers
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01 European Foundations of the American Parks Movement 2 Charles Bridgeman 1690 1738 bridge between the Baroque and the Landscape Garden Pioneers & Characteristics of the 18 th century English Landscape Garden William Kent 1684 1740 Architect, painter & set designer “Nature abhors a straight line” “[William Kent] leapt the fence and saw that all nature was a garden” A naturalistic, informal style utilized design techniques that pulled one through the landscape, including conceal/reveal, surprise, and borrowed landscape Use of freeform lakes and meadows and groups of trees to create space Incorporation of literary allusions and mythological content to create powerful scenes that would unfold as a series of paintings as one progressed through the landscape Utilization of architectural and sculptural features (including Classically themed temples, gothic churches and cottages, Egyptian obelisks, Palladian pavilions, and artificial ruins) Claude Lorraine 1600 1682 Artistic Influence on the 18 th century English Landscape Garden Nicolas Poussin 1594 1665 Salvator Rosa 1615 1673 Stowe Buckinghamshire – 1711 1735 (Charles Bridgeman, with Vanbrugh & Wise), 1734 1748 (William Kent), 1741 1749 (Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown)
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01 European Foundations of the American Parks Movement 3 Stowe, England Arcadia : a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature, derived from the Greek province of the same name – associated with bountiful nature, harmony, and Classical utopian ideals Lorrain’s Coast View of Delos with Aenneas Stourhead Wiltshire – 1735 65 Henry Hoare II, owner & designer Late 18 th c. Literary Influence Edmund Burke 1729 1797
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