Chap 8 Flashcards - Flashcards for Sociology 100 Chapter 8...

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Unformatted text preview: Flashcards for Sociology 100 Chapter 8 STRATIFICATION AND SOCIAL MOBILITY IN THE UNITED STATES Absolute poverty A minimum level of subsistence below which no family should be expected to live. Achieved status A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts. 1 Ascribed status A social position that is assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics. Bourgeoisie Karl Marx’s term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production. Capitalism An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits. 2 Caste A hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile. Class A group of people who have a similar level of wealth and income. Class consciousness In Karl Marx’s view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change. 3 Class system A social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility. Closed system A social system in which there is little or no possibility of individual social mobility. Corporate welfare Tax breaks, direct payments, and grants that the government makes to corporations. 4 Digital divide The relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low‐ income groups, racial and ethnic minorities, rural residents, and the citizens of developing countries Dominant ideology A set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests. Estate system A system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services. Also known as feudalism. 5 Esteem The reputation that a particular individual has earned within an occupation. False consciousness A term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position. Horizontal mobility The movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank. 6 Income Salaries and wages. Intergenerational mobility Changes in the social position of children relative to their parents. Intragenerational mobility Changes in a person’s social position within his or her adult life. 7 Life chances The opportunities people have to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences. Objective method A technique for measuring social class that assigns individuals to classes on the basis of criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence. Open system A social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status. 8 Power The ability to exercise one’s will over others. Prestige The respect and admiration that an occupation holds in a society. Proletariat Karl Marx’s term for the working class in a capitalist society. 9 Relative poverty A floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, whatever their lifestyles, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole. Slavery A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people. Social inequality A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power. 10 Social mobility Movement of individuals or groups from one position of a society’s stratification system to another. Socioeconomic status (SES) …a measure of social class that is based on income, education, and occupation Status group People who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions. 11 Stratification A structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society. Underclass The long‐term poor people who lack training and skills. Vertical mobility The movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank. 12 Wealth An inclusive term encompassing all of a person’s material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property. 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2011 for the course SOC 100 taught by Professor Tba during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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