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Unformatted text preview: Flashcards for Sociology 100 Chapter 14 GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY Affirmative action Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities. Authority Institutionalized power that is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised. 1 Capitalism An economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits. Charismatic authority Power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. Communism As an ideal type, an economic system under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made based on people’s ability to produce. 2 Deindustrialization The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants. Democracy … In a literal sense, government by the people. Dictatorship A government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws. 3 Downsizing Reductions taken in a company’s workforce as part of deindustrialization. Economic system The social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed. Elite model A view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests. 4 Environmental justice A legal strategy based on claims that racial minorities are subjected disproportionately to environmental hazards. Force The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others. Industrial society A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services. 5 Influence The exercise of power through a process of persuasion. Informal economy Transfers of money, goods, or service that are not reported to the government. Laissez‐faire A form of capitalism under which people compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy. 6 Monarchy A form of government headed by a single member of a royal family, usually a king, queen, or some other hereditary ruler. Monopoly Control of a market by a single business firm. Off‐shoring The transfer of work to foreign contractors. 7 Oligarchy A form of government in which a few individuals rule. Peace The absence of war, or more broadly, a proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations. Pluralist model A view of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to government, so that no single group is dominant. 8 Political system The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society’s goals. Politics In Harold D. Lasswell’s words, “who gets what, when, and how.” Power The ability to exercise one’s will over others. 9 Power elite A small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States. Rational‐legal authority Power made legitimate by law. Representative democracy A form of government in which certain individuals are selected to speak for the people. 10 Socialism An economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned. Terrorism The use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims. Totalitarianism Virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society’s social and political life. 11 Traditional authority Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice. War Conflict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weapons. 12 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2011 for the course SOC 100 taught by Professor Tba during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Fall '08