002-ScienceMethod OCN 201

002-ScienceMethod OCN 201 - Science A way of investigating...

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Pure Science - pursuit of knowledge Applied Science - search for practical uses of scientific knowledge Science A way of investigating the world in order to form general rules about why things happen tetradoxin Pain relief in terminal cancer patients
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Science is empirical. It relies on observation and experience. The phenomenon studied must be measurable. Phenomenon that cannot be measured: Is this painting beautiful? Does God exist? It must be consistent with known natural laws and well- established, well-documented existing theories. It must be derived objectively from independently confirmable observations. All scientific knowledge must be regarded as tentative. Characteristics of Scientific Explanations
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Hypothesis: Overfishing Antarctic Krill has an effect on the Antarctic food web. Hypothesis: The fibropapilloma virus causes tumors in green sea turtles. Hypothesis: Hydrothermal vent bacteria are the primary producers in the deep sea. Hypothesis: Bioluminescent fish are better predators. Scientific statements must be testable and reproducible (i.e., valid & reliable).
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When did the study of science begin? 32,000 years ago Paleolithic paintings on cave walls and recordings on bones- observations Mesopotamian cultures- written record of astronomical observations, chemical substances, disease observations, mathematical tables and calculations 7,000 B.C. to 6 th century B.C.
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Scientific method (observation, inductive reasoning) Described hundreds of marine species Dolphin is a mammal The earth is round Biology (spontaneous generation)- disproved by Francesco Redi (1668), an Italian doctor who proved maggots came from flies. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
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Ptolemy (170 A.D.)- geocentric universe Copernicus (1500’s)- heliocentric universe; not accepted until 100 years after his death Galileo (1600’s)- physicist, astronomer, scientific method
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Subsidence theory Origin of Species (1859) Galapagos Islands, Ecuador Darwin- HMS Beagle (1831)
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248 mya 65 mya present Pangaea Continental drift theory Wegener (1915)
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Science Disciplines Physical Sciences Biological or Life Sciences Physics Astronomy Chemistry Geology Botany Zoology Oceanography Marine biology Embryology Anatomy Ecology Genetics Microbiology Biochemistry Biophysics Biomath Bioengineering Aerospace Engineering Agronomy TECHNOLOGY
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Scientific Method A way to answer questions Deductive Reasoning - general to specific reasoning from general theories to account for specific experimental results (theory-data collection-analysis) Inductive Reasoning - specific to general reasoning from specific observations and experiments to more general theories (data collection-analysis-theory)
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January1992 in the North Pacific
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Rubber Duckies and Ocean currents. In Jan. 1992, a container loaded with 29,000 rubber
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002-ScienceMethod OCN 201 - Science A way of investigating...

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