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004-Plate Tectonics - lithosphere asthenosphere mesosphere...

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asthenosphere lithosphere mesosphere
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Lithosphere (hard) Asthenosphere (soft) Mesosphere
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Mantle - 1000 o C mesosphere Solid ~ 2300 km thick asthenosphere Soft ~3000 km thick lithosphere hard ~100 km thick Inner Core- 4300 o C mostly iron core inner part is so compressed that it is solid Outer Core- 3700 o C iron and sulfur liquid Crust floats on top of lithosphere continental crust (granite) 20 to 70 km thick oceanic crust (basalt) ~ 8 km thick Earth formed 4.6 bya
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Principles of plate tectonics The Earth is composed of a mosaic of thin rigid plates (pieces of lithosphere) that move horizontally with respect to one another Plates interact with each other along their plate boundaries Plate boundaries associated with tectonic activity (mountain building, earthquakes, active volcanoes)
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Alfred Wegener Proposed Theory of Continental Drift (1915) Failed to provide a mechanism
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Evidence for Continental Drift continental shape similar geology fossil evidence (animal and plant) volcano and earthquake zone paleomagnetism
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