007-Chemistry - Seawater Chemistry Seawater Elements Pure...

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Seawater Chemistry
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Pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical entities by ordinary chemical reactions. Elements Periodic Table 112 known elements
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Major Elements Comprising the Major Elements Comprising the Biological Molecules of Living Biological Molecules of Living Things Things C C arbon arbon H H ydrogen ydrogen O O xygen xygen N N itrogen itrogen P P hosphorus hosphorus S S ulfur ulfur
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Other Major Elements of Living Things Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) Potassium (K) Potassium (K) Chlorine (Cl) Chlorine (Cl) Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium (Mg)
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Atomic structure Atoms are the building blocks of all matter Nucleus contains: Neutrons (no charge) Protons (+ charge) Outer shell(s) contain: Electrons (– charge)
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Subatomic Particles Protons ( p + ) Electrons ( e - ) Neutrons ( n o )
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proton neutron electron hydrogen atom helium atom carbon atom Electron Shell Configurations of Atoms 1p, 0n, 1e- 2p, 2n, 2e- 6p, 6n, 6e-
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atomic number: number of p ; #p = #e- He
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atomic mass (atomic wt.) : sum of masses of p+n He 2p + 2n, atomic mass = 4 He He p + n e-
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p = n = e- = Atomic number = Atomic mass = C Carbon Atom
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O16 O17 O18 stable isotopes Isotope Isotope atoms that differ in the number of neutrons O O O #p #p+n O
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Molecule Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Oxygen Oxygen O O 2 2 Nitrogen Nitrogen N N 2 2 Ammonia Ammonia NH NH 3 3 Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide CO CO 2 2 Water Water H H 2 2 O O Methane Methane CH CH 4 4 Glucose Glucose C C 6 6 H H 12 12 O O 6 6
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Carbohydrates: C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) Lipids: C 3 H 8 O 3 (glycerol) + 3C 16 H 32 O 2 (fatty acids) Proteins: COOH-NH 2 Nucleic Acids: sugar, PO 4 , N 2 containing base Organic Molecules
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Compound Binding two or more different kinds of elements together NaCl NaCl CH CH 4 4 C C 6 6 H H 12 12 O O 6 6
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Ion An atom that has either gained or lost electrons such that it exhibits a net charge Na + Cl -
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Sodium (Na) Atom 11 P + 12 N o
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Sodium (Na + ) Ion 11 P + 12 N o
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Chlorine (Cl) Atom 17 P + 18 N o
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Chloride (Cl - ) Ion 17 P + 18 N o
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Some Examples of Ions Hydrogen H + Potassium K + Fluoride F - Calcium Ca +2 Magnesium Mg +2 Hydroxide Hydroxide OH OH - - Bicarbonate Bicarbonate HCO HCO 3 3 - - Nitrate Nitrate NO NO 3 3 - - Phosphate Phosphate PO PO 4 4 -3 -3
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Bond Types : Ionic Covalent Hydrogen
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Ionic Bonds Transfer of electron 17 P + 18 N o 11 P + 12 N o
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