008-Climate - Why is one area of the earth’s land surface...

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Unformatted text preview: Why is one area of the earth’s land surface a desert, another a grassland, and another a forest? Climate- long term weather patterns Weather- momentary conditions of the atmosphere; created by the unequal heating & cooling of the earth’s surface. I. Climate Temperature & Precipitation- major factors that determine an areas climate. Humidity- the amount of water vapor air holds, which is dependent upon temperature. Winter solstice Dec. 22 Sun vertical at 23.5 o S Winter solstice Dec. 22 Sun vertical at 23.5 o S Autumnal equinox Sep. 23 Sun vertical at equator Summer solstice June 21 Sun vertical at 23.5 o N Vernal equinox March 21 Sun vertical at equator Northern Hemisphere Names Earth further from sun Earth closer to sun Solar irradiance- What are some factors that effect exposure to irradiance? The radiant energy emitted by the sun. It is highest at the equator and lowest at the poles. We are interested in conditions near the Earth’s surface Convection cell model Non-rotating Earth Add rotation and add landmasses unequal heating and cooling of the Earth Physical properties of the atmosphere: Density • Warm, low density air rises • Cool, high density air sinks • Creates circular- moving loop of air (convection cell) Physical properties of the atmosphere: Water vapor • Cool air cannot hold much water vapor, so is typically dry • Warm air can hold more water vapor, so is typically moist • Water vapor decreases the density of air Physical properties of the atmosphere: Pressure • A column of cool, dense air causes high pressure at the surface, which will lead to sinking air • A column of warm, less dense air causes low pressure at the surface, which will lead to rising air ITCZ intertropical convergence zone= doldrums Low pressure, wet climate High pressure, dry climate Low pressure, wet climate 30 o 30 o 60 o 60 o 90 o 90 o o High pressure, dry climate A) Idealized winds generated by pressure gradient and Coriolis Force. B) Actual wind patterns owing to land mass distribution.. ITCZ Seasonal changes in the position of the ITCZ January July Winter monsoon- Dry Summer monsoon- Wet Biome A major type of ecological community, determined largely by climate. Forest Tundra Grassland Desert Tundra Chaparral Tropical rainforest Temperate Evergreen Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Polar Ice Grassland Taiga Desert Mountain Zones Marine Biome • Consists of oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries • The ocean is the largest of all ecosystems. • The ocean contains a diverse array of plants and animals at various depth zones. • Coral reefs consist mainly of coral. • Estuaries are areas where fresh and salt water environments converge. Mangroves, oysters, crabs and marsh grasses are examples of species in this environment. Marine Biome Hydrologic Cycle Rain shadow effect The Coriolis effect • The Coriolis effect – Is a result of Earth’s rotation – Causes moving objects to follow...
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008-Climate - Why is one area of the earth’s land surface...

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