011-Beaches - Landforms and terminology in coastal regions

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the foreshore -  the area most influenced  by the high and low water marks and  breaking waves.  the backshore -  submerged only during  the highest tides and severest storms.  the berm –  the high point on the beach;  the backshore-foreshore boundary. It  changes seasonally. Landforms and terminology in coastal regions
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Landforms and terminology in coastal regions Berm Beach face Notch Wave-cut bench Longshore bar
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Light versus heavy wave activity Light wave activity Heavy wave activity Berm/long- shore bar Berm grows and longshore bars shrink Longshore bars grow and berm shrinks Wave energy Low High Time span Long Short Characteristics Summertime beach: sandy, wide berm, steep beach face Wintertime beach: rocky, thin berm, flattened beach face
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Summertime and wintertime beach conditions Summertime beach Wintertime beach
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Movement of sand on the beach Movement parallel ( ) to shoreline Caused by wave refraction (bending) Each wave transports sand either upcoast or downcoast Huge volumes of sand are moved within the surf zone The beach resembles a “river of sand”
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Erosion Deposition Human Development
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Longshore current and longshore drift Longshore current = zigzag movement of water in the surf zone Longshore drift = movement of sediment caused by longshore current
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Features of erosional shores Headland Wave-cut cliff Sea cave Sea arch Sea stack Marine terrace
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Headland Eastern tip of Oahu
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Wave-cut Cliff Ka‘ula
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Sea Cave w/collapsed roof Na Pali Coast, Kauai
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011-Beaches - Landforms and terminology in coastal regions

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