012-Coastal Ocean -...

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Coastal wetlands are coastal watersheds that drain to  the ocean or to an estuary or bay. 
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Coastal Ocean Coastal Ocean Intertidal Zone Estuaries Muddy bottom and sandy bottom communities Salt marshes and seagrass beds Mangroves Coral reefs
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Zonation is a vertical banding of the organisms living on the rocky coastline. These distinct bands occur in part from many complex physical and biological factors that effect marine organisms.
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Tidal Zones on a Rocky Ocean Shore Splash Fringe Level High Tide Level Mid Tide Level Low Tide Level Low Fringe Level
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Spray or Splash Zone High Tide Zone Middle Tide Zone Low Tide Zone Mostly shelled orgs Many soft bodied orgs and algae
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opihi periwinkles ulva
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Biotic factors affecting organisms living in the intertidal zone: Competition for space and food Predation Reproduction Substrate settlement preference Osmoregulation
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Abiotic factors affecting organisms living in the intertidal zone: Salinity Temperature Air and light exposure Tidal flow Waves and current action Substrate Wind direction and strength Dissolved O2 Storms Natural Disasters
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Estuaries are among the most productive marine ecosystems with high biomass of benthic algae, seagrass and phytoplankton
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Wetlands in Hawaii At one time contained an estimated 59,000 acres of wetlands Over the last 200 years Hawaii has lost approximately 12 % of its original wetland acres. The exact effect of the loss or degradation of Hawaii's wetlands on local fisheries is unclear. It is estimated that only 1% of the Pacific island recreational and commercial species are estuarine- dependent. Economically important estuarine fish: mullet, milkfish, shrimp, and the nehu, a tropical anchovy used as live bait in the pole-and-line skipjack tuna fishery.
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Oahu Watershed
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Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Wetlands
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Seaweeds limu
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Hooks and Lures
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Octopus Lure
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Fishing Shrines ko‘a
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Hawaiian Fish Ponds loko i‘a
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Ahupua’a 1. Upland 2. Plains 3. Ocean anges from the tip of the mtn to the reef area
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The Ahupua‘a
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012-Coastal Ocean -...

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