014-Classification - Criteria for classification as...

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Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987): “…it is written that animals are divided into: those that belong to the Emperor embalmed ones those that are trained suckling pigs mermaids fabulous ones stray dogs those that tremble as if they were mad those that have just broken a flower vase
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Taxonomy- the field of science that classifies life into groups Systematics- studies diversity of life It is the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary history
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Biological Kingdoms 2 Kingdoms Traditional view plants animals
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Biological Kingdoms 5 Kingdoms Whittaker, 1969 Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera
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Five kingdom system: Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Six kingdom system: Eu- bacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Archae- bacteria Three domain system: Eu- bacteria Archae- bacteria E U K A R Y A Eight kingdom system: Eu- bacteria Archezoa Fungi Plantae Animalia Archae- bacteria Chromista Protista Biological Kingdoms
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Classification: Six kingdom system : Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Archaebacteria E. coli Cyanobacteria Paramecium Diatom Slime mold
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Six kingdom system: Eu- bacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Archae- bacteria Monera
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Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera (Eubacteria & Archaebacteria) Primary Grouping Criterion Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cellular complexity
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Other Grouping Criteria Single-celled vs. multicellular Mode of nutrition absorption photosynthesis ingestion Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Note: Criteria can overlap
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Other Grouping Criteria Mode of Reproduction sexual asexual Respiratory System gas exchange across skin lungs gills
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Other Grouping Criteria Skeleton internal/external bone/cartilage/chitin… Circulatory System none open/closed
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Age of Systematics Flair for creative simplicity 1700’s Carl Linnaeus Incurable classifier
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Linnaeus Swedish doctor 14 books in 3 years Fish book: 3,000 pages Professor of Medicine & Natural History
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Linnaeus 1753: published book describing World’s plants Start of naming process ID: flowers - number & structure of the parts
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Linnaeus Descriptions: “poetic precision” Result: easily applied system 2 word names: “binomial nomenclature”
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Binomial Nomenclature 2 word name (genus + species) 1st level classification Loxodonta africanas Elephas maximus
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Tiger = Panthera tigris Leopard = Panthera pardus Lion = Panthera leo
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Panda Bear = Ailuropoda melanoleuca Black Bear = Ursus americanus Polar Bear = Ursus maritimus
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Linnaean Hierarchy Kingdom Phylum (or Division) Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae & Fungi
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Linnaean Hierarchy “King Philip came over from Germany stoned.”
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Common names Confusing Ambiguous Scientific names Agreed upon system Names Portuguese Man-of-War Bluebottle Physalia physalis
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Names Language Latin or Latinized Giving names A highly technical process Name is author’s choice
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Commemorate People Gardenia jasminoides (Dr. Alexander Garden) Camellia japonica (Joseph Kamel) Strelitzia reginae (Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz) Siegesbeckia orientalis (Dr. Siegesbeck)
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Descriptive Cardinalis cardinalis (red) Railus aquaticus (watery) Passer domesticus (house)
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  • Summer '08
  • Decarlo,E
  • The Maids, Hexactinellida Class Calcaria Class Desmospongia Class Sclerospongia, Class Scyphozoa Class, Class Hydrozoa Class, Class Calcaria Class, Class Hexactinellida Class

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014-Classification - Criteria for classification as...

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