Unformatted text preview: BIOL B IOL 101L Lab 5 M ar i ne C onservat i on and M PAs a nd W hat are C oral? a re Coral are animals are animals Individuals = Polyps www.cruising-png.com Zooxanthellae Zooxanthellae Symbiotic singlesingle celled plants Provide up to 90% of Provide up to 90% of a Polyp’s energy Polyp’s www.reefed.edu.au www.coral.noaa.gov C oral C olonies Different shapes and sizes branched lobed sizes – branched, lobed, plated, boulder-like. boulder- www.hawaiianatolls.org Copyright Rodolf Pan C oral R eefs All Copyrights Rodolf Pan Provide habitat for fish and for fish and invertebrates invertebrates C oral R eefs - H igh Bi ~ 2B i o di versit y 25 % of 5
marine m arine species in > 0.25% of ocean ocean area All Copyrights Rodolf Pan C oral R eef Ecosy stem Services
Recreation Coastal protection protection Fisheries/Food Rodolf Pan After Indonesian Tsunami www.nasa.gov Threats T hreats to C oral R eefs Runoff – oil, pesticides, Runo fertilizer, paint etc. Sedimentation coralreef.noaa.gov marinebio.org habitatnews.nus.edu.sg Threats Invasive Species T hreats – Invasive S pecies Introduced species species Invasive algae are overgrowing coral, outcompeting native limu. Invasive fish and invertebrates invertebrates are spreading on reefs - most effects effects are un-researched. un- Copyrights Rodolf Pan Over-fishing Aquarium trade Curio trade (how are these Curio trade (how are these shells shells & skeletons obtained?)
marinebio.org Threats T hreats to C oral R eefs www.dandlcreations.com OverO ver -fishing - W e’ re Fishing the H igher -level Pred ators igherTrends of mean t rophic level of fisheries landings in northern t emperate areas, 1950 to 1994.
(A) North Pacific (FAO areas 61 and 67); (FAO areas 61 and 67); (B) Northwest and Western Central Atlantic (FAO areas 21 and 31); (C ) Northeast Atlantic (FAO area 27); and (D ) Mediterranean Mediterranean (FAO area 37). Threats T hreats – C limate C hange Warming temperatures cause bleaching (expulsion of zooxanthellae) of zooxanthellae) Ocean acidification – loss/dissolution of coral loss/dissolution of coral skeletons skeletons coralreef.noaa.gov www.phoenixislands.org Marine Protected Areas Marine Protected Areas (M PAs) M arine Protected A rea (MPA), an area of P rotected Area (MPA) an area of ocean ocean habitat where fishing or other activities are restricted or not permitted they protect are restricted or not permitted, they protect living, nonliving, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources resources. MPAs are becoming increasingly important with the continued degradation of our marine the continued degradation of our marine environments. environments. M PA Benefits B enefits If properly enforced MPAs result in increased If properly enforced, MPAs result in increased abundance abundance and biomass of fish and invertebrates invertebrates. ‘Spillover’ of young and adults into surrounding areas areas. May cause ecosystem recovery or reversion to it’s original state. Trophic Trophic Cascade Otters preyed upon sea urchins that grazed upon kelp. kelp. Kelp forests supported a whole community of invertebrates and fish. Hunting & predation of otters reduced abundance otters reduced abundance. Otter’s prey, sea urchins increased in abundance. Urchins grazed kelp, destroying kelp beds/forests, and resulting in urchin and resulting in ‘urchin barrens’. barrens’. Trophic Trophic Cascade Kelp forests communities of invertebrates and fish invertebrates and fish disappeared. disappeared. Protection of otters resulted resulted in recovery of population. Sea urchin abundance Sea urchin abundance was was reduced. Kelp beds/forests returned, returned, resulting in the return of kelp forest ecosystems. ...
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