08 Classification - CLASSIFICATION LAB 08 _ The purpose of...

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CLASSIFICATION LAB 08 _______________________________________________________ The purpose of this week’s lab is to: review classification of organisms construct and map the relationship of members of the Kingdom Animalia I. Systematics Systematics is the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary history. Taxonomy is more general than systematics and can be defined as the science of identifying, naming and classifying organisms into groups. Taxonomists may or may not use evolutionary principles in developing classification schemes. Most taxonomists use a hierarchical system to classify species into increasingly broad groups based on extent of similarities in morphology and other characteristics. Linnaeus, a Swedish physician/botanist in the 1700s, helped develop the two part, or binomial naming system that we use today to classify organisms. The first word of the name is the genus to which the species belongs. The second name is the specific epithet of the species. For example, the scientific name for the domestic cat is Felis silvestri (underlined or italicized). The cat belongs to a larger group (taxon), the family Felidae. The classification process continues hierarchically. The next higher group is the order Carnivora, which is followed by the class Mammalia, subphylum Vertebrata, phylum Chordata, and kingdom Animalia (Table. I). (Note : For plant, the term “Division” is used in place of “Phylum”) Table I. Classification of the Domestic Cat Category Domestic Cat Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Felidae Genus Felis Species silvestri The classification scheme we will use is a six-kingdom system that divides prokaryotes into two kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria), the Eukaryotes into the Kingdom Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. There are other classification schemes such as a three domain system that separates organisms into the 14-1
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superkingdoms of Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, and Eukarya; and an eight kingdom system that divides prokaryotes into two kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archeabacteria) and divides protists into three kingdoms (Archaezoa, Chromista, and Protista). These different schemes of classification also illustrate two extremes among taxonomists -- lumpers and splitters. Taxonomists who are lumpers prefer to classify things in only a few, broad groups while splitters favor naming many groups, so there are fewer taxa in each group. What are some more creative ways we can classify organisms? List as many as you can think. Exercise 1: The Nuts and Bolts of Classification Divide into four research teams. You will be handed a bag containing various fasteners (nails, staple, screws, etc.). As renowned taxonomists, you are to develop a classification scheme that meets the established rules of the Linnean system. Be prepared to defend your classification scheme orally and answer questions regarding your classification choice—what roles did form vs. function play in your classification scheme? How did you delineate each of your hierarchical groupings?
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2011 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Wong during the Fall '09 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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08 Classification - CLASSIFICATION LAB 08 _ The purpose of...

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