Some life course theorists recognize that career criminals may travel more than a single road

Some life course theorists recognize that career criminals may travel more than a single road

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Some life course theorists recognize that career criminals may travel more than a single road: Some may specialize in violence and extortion; some may be involved in theft and fraud; others may engage in a variety of criminal acts. Some offenders may begin their careers early in life, whereas others are late bloomers who begin committing crime when most people desist. Some are frequent offenders while others travel a more moderate path.32 Some of the most important research on delinquent paths or trajectories has been conducted by Rolf Loeber and his associates. Using data from a longitudinal study of Pittsburgh youth, Loeber has identified three distinct paths to a criminal career (Figure
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Unformatted text preview: 9.2).33 1. The authority conflict pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior. This leads to defiance (doing things ones own way, disobedience) and then to authority avoidance (staying out late, truancy, running baway). 2. The covert pathway begins with minor, underhanded behavior (lying, shoplifting) that leads to property damage (setting nuisance fires, damaging property). This behavior eventually escalates to more serious forms of criminality, ranging from joyriding, pocket picking, larceny, and fencing to passing bad checks, using stolen credit cards, stealing cars, dealing drugs, and breaking and entering....
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