ENGR 145 - o o o o o alkanes C-C single bonds HnC2n 2...

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alk a nes: C-C single bonds o H n C 2n+2 o saturated-4 bonds on each carbon o 4 sigma bonds o sp 3 hybridization of Carbon o no C bonded to more than 2 Cs and chain end C are bonded to one carbon from other molecule o ex: CH 4 alk e nes: C=C double bond o Chain alkenes: C n H 2n o sp 2 hybridization on C o Double bonds→unsaturated o reactive o ethene, a.k.a. ethylene CH 2 =CH 2 o propene, a.k.a. propylene CH 2 =CH-CH 3 o two sigma bonds and one pi bond cis: side groups on the same side trans: side groups on the opposite side
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alk y nes: C C triple bond o Chain alkynes: CnH2n-2 o sp hybridization on C o ethyne, a.k.a. acetylene: C 2 H 2 ; H-C C-H o propyne: C 3 H 4 ; CH 3 -C C-H o even more reactive than alkenes C x H y O z o Alcohols o Aldehydes and Ketones carbonyl o carboxylic acids o ethers
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R-O-R’(oxygen has two pairs of electrons and molecule is bent) o esters C x H y halogen z o Chlorides o Bromides C x H y N z o Amines
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